George Sutherland

George Sutherland


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George Sutherland, 25 Mart 1862'de İngiltere, Stony Stratford'da doğdu. O çocukken aile Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'ne göç etti. Utah'a yerleştiler ve daha sonra Brigham Young Akademisi ve Michigan Üniversitesi'nde eğitim gördüler.

Sutherland, 1883'te baroya kabul edildi ve Provo, Utah'da çalıştı. Cumhuriyetçi Parti'nin bir üyesi olan Sutherland, Temsilciler Meclisi'nde (1901-03) ve Birleşik Devletler Senatosu'nda (1905-17) görev yaptı.

1916'da yenildikten sonra Sutherland, Warren Harding'in hukuk danışmanı oldu. Harding başkan olduktan kısa bir süre sonra Sutherland'ı Yüksek Mahkeme'ye atadı. Sutherland muhafazakar bir yargıçtı ve 1923'te asgari ücreti yasakladı.

Demokrat Parti adayı Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1932'de cumhurbaşkanı seçildi. Sonraki birkaç yıl içinde Sutherland ve Cumhuriyetçi Parti'nin destekçisi olan diğer yargıçlar, Ulusal Kurtarma İdaresi'ne (NRA), Tarımsal Uyum Yasası'na karşı karar verdiler. AAA) ve diğer on Yeni Anlaşma kanunu.

2 Şubat 1937'de Franklin D. Roosevelt, Yüksek Mahkeme'ye New Deal yasaları üzerindeki eylemlerinden dolayı saldıran bir konuşma yaptı. Dokuz yargıçtan yedisinin (Sutherland, Charles Hughes, Willis Van Devanter, Harlan Stone, Owen Roberts, Benjamin Cardozo ve Pierce Butler) Cumhuriyetçi başkanlar tarafından atandığına dikkat çekti. Roosevelt, 10.000.000 oyla yeniden seçimi kazanmıştı ve yargıçların, halkın büyük çoğunluğunun açıkça desteğini alan yasaları veto edebilmesine içerliyordu.

Roosevelt, yargıçlardan altısının (Sutherland, Charles Hughes, Willis Van Devanter, James McReynolds, Louis Brandeis ve Pierce Butler) 70'in üzerinde olması nedeniyle yaşın büyük bir sorun olduğunu öne sürdü. Roosevelt, Kongre'den, 70 yaşın üzerindeki her yargıç için en fazla altıya kadar bir yeni yargıç ekleyerek başkanın Yüksek Mahkemeyi genişletmesini sağlayan bir yasa tasarısını geçirmesini isteyeceğini duyurdu.

Charles Hughes, Roosevelt'in Mahkeme Yeniden Düzenleme Yasası'nın Yüksek Mahkemenin Demokrat Parti'nin kontrolü altına girmesiyle sonuçlanacağını fark etti. İlk hamlesi, yazdığı bir mektubun Yargı Komitesi başkanı Burton Wheeler tarafından yayınlanmasını sağlamak oldu. Mektupta Hughes, Franklin D. Roosevelt'in tüm iddialarını ikna edici bir şekilde reddetti.

Ancak, perde arkasında Charles Hughes, Roosevelt'in tasarısının Kongre'de yenileceğinden emin olmak için anlaşmalar yapmakla meşguldü. 29 Mart'ta Owen Roberts, asgari ücret yasasına karşı oy kullanma konusundaki fikrini değiştirdiğini açıkladı. Hughes ayrıca Sosyal Güvenlik Yasası ve Ulusal Çalışma İlişkileri Yasası (NLRA) hakkındaki görüşünü de tersine çevirdi ve 5'e 4 oyla artık anayasal oldukları ilan edildi.

Sonra muhtemelen yargıçların en muhafazakarı olan Willis Van Devanter istifa etme niyetini açıkladı. Yerine Demokrat Parti üyesi ve New Deal'in güçlü bir destekçisi olan Hugo Black getirildi. Temmuz 1937'de Kongre, Mahkeme Yeniden Yapılanma Yasasını 70-20 yendi. Bununla birlikte, Roosevelt, artık yasasını engelleme olasılığı daha düşük olan bir Yüksek Mahkemeye sahip olduğunu bilmenin memnuniyetini yaşadı.

George Sutherland 1938'de 76 yaşında Yargıtay'dan istifa etti. 18 Temmuz 1942'de Stockbridge, Massachusetts'te öldü.


SUTHERLAND, GEORGE

George Sutherland, 1922'den 1938'e kadar ABD Yüksek Mahkemesi'nin yargıç yardımcısı olarak görev yaptı. Muhafazakar bir hukukçu olan Sutherland, Kongre'nin ve eyalet yasama organlarının iş ve çalışma koşullarını düzenleme çabalarına karşı çıktı. 1930'larda, Başkan Franklin D.'nin anayasaya aykırı büyük kısımlarını yöneten muhafazakar bir bloğun parçasıydı. roosevelt'in yeni anlaşma programı.

Sutherland, 25 Mart 1862'de İngiltere'nin Buckinghamshire kentinde doğdu. Sutherland küçük bir çocukken, ailesi Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'ne göç ederek Utah Provo'ya yerleşti. Sutherland, 1881'de Brigham Young Üniversitesi'nden mezun oldu ve 1882 ve 1883'te Michigan Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi'ne katıldı. 1883'te Michigan barosuna kabul edildi, ancak aynı yıl Salt Lake City'de bir hukuk bürosu kurduğu Utah'a döndü.

Sutherland siyasete ilgi duydu ve bölgesel yasama meclisinde görev yaptı. 1896'da, Utah bir eyalet olduktan sonra, Sutherland cumhuriyetçi bir parti üyesi olarak ilk Utah Senatosu'na seçildi. 1901'de ABD Temsilciler Meclisi'ne seçildi ve 1905'te Utah'tan bir ABD senatörü oldu.

"Kaybolan bir özgürlük için hafızaya kazınabilecek en üzücü mezar kitabesi, sahiplerine henüz zaman varken kurtarıcı bir el uzatmadığı için kaybedilmiş olmasıdır."
—George Sutherland

Sutherland'ın Kongre'de siyasi muhafazakar olarak ününe rağmen, Başkan Theodore Roosevelt'in reform programlarını destekledi. Ayrıca demiryolu işçileri için işçi tazminatı yasasını ve ABD Anayasasında yapılan on dokuzuncu değişikliği destekledi.

kadınların oy hakkı için sağlanmıştır. Bununla birlikte, bireysel hakların çok önemli olduğuna ve hükümetin çoğu ekonomik faaliyete müdahale etmemesi gerektiğine inanıyordu.

1916 Senato seçimlerinde mağlup olduktan sonra, Sutherland ulusal Cumhuriyet siyasetine dahil oldu ve Başkan warren g. Harding, 1920'de seçildi. Sutherland'ın adı birkaç yıl boyunca olası bir Yüksek Mahkeme atanması olarak anıldı ve Eylül 1922'de Harding, Sutherland'ı Mahkemeye aday gösterdi.

Sutherland, muhafazakarların hakim olduğu bir Yüksek Mahkemeye katıldı. Muhafazakar çoğunluk gibi, Sutherland da, ABD Anayasası'ndaki Beşinci ve On Dördüncü Değişikliklerin yasal süreç Maddelerinin, hükümet düzenlemelerinin özüne ve hükümetin yürüttüğü diğer faaliyetlere sınırlamalar getirmek için başvurulabileceğini savunan maddi hukuk süreci doktrinine inanıyordu. "yaşamı, özgürlüğü ve mülkiyeti" etkiler. 1880'lerden bu yana Yüksek Mahkeme, çalışma koşullarını, ücretleri ve ticari faaliyetleri düzenleyen çeşitli eyalet ve federal yasaları iptal etmek için esaslı yasal süreç başlatmıştı.

Sutherland ayrıca, hükümetin bireylerin işverenleriyle ücretler, saatler ve çalışma koşullarıyla ilgili sözleşme yapma haklarına müdahale etmemesi gerektiğini belirten sözleşme özgürlüğü kavramına da bağlı kaldı. Sutherland çoğunluk görüşünü yazdı. Adkins v. Çocuk Hastanesi, 261 U.S. 525, 43 S. Ct. 394, 67 L. Ed. Mahkemenin Columbia Bölgesi'ndeki kadın işçiler için federal bir asgari ücret yasasını iptal ettiği 785 (1923). Sutherland, işveren ve çalışanın, ücretlerle ilgili istedikleri koşulları müzakere etme anayasal haklarına sahip oldukları sonucuna vardı. Sutherland, Kongre'nin genel olarak topluma zarar veren sosyal ve ekonomik eşitsizlikleri düzeltme yetkisine sahip olduğu fikrini reddetti.

1929'daki borsa çöküşü ve 1930'ların Büyük Buhranı ile Mahkeme'deki muhafazakar çoğunluk, yoğun bir kamuoyu ve siyasi inceleme altına girdi. Franklin D. Roosevelt'in 1932'de seçilmesi, federal hükümetin rolüne ilişkin felsefede bir değişikliğin sinyalini verdi. Roosevelt'in Yeni Anlaşması, ulusal ekonomik planlamaya ve iş ve emeği düzenlemek için idari kurumların oluşturulmasına dayanıyordu. Bu, Sutherland ve muhafazakar kardeşleri için bir lanetti.

1933'ten 1937'ye kadar Mahkeme sayısız New Deal tedbirini iptal etti. Sutherland, Justices james c ile birlikte. mcreynolds, willis van devanter ve pierce butler, ekonomiyi canlandırmak ve bir sosyal güvenlik ağı oluşturmak için federal çabalara muhalefetin çekirdeğini oluşturdu. Sözde Dört Atlı, 1933'teki ulusal sanayi kurtarma yasasının anayasaya aykırı olduğu gerekçesiyle iptal edilmesine yardımcı oldu. Schechter Poultry Corporation / Amerika Birleşik Devletleri, 295 ABD 495, 55 S. Ct. 837, 79 L. Ed. 1570 (1935) ve 1933 Tarımsal Uyum Yasası Amerika Birleşik Devletleri v. Butler, 297 ABD 1, 56 S. Ct. 312, 80 L. Ed. 477 (1936).

Roosevelt, yetmiş yaşın üzerindeki her üye için Mahkemeye ek bir adalet ekleyecek bir mahkeme paketleme planı önererek yanıt verdi. Bu plan Dört Atlı'yı hedef aldı ve uygulanırsa oylarını iptal edecekti. Roosevelt'in planı Kongre tarafından reddedilmesine rağmen, federal hükümetin rolü ve Yüksek Mahkemenin inatçılığı konusundaki ulusal tartışma, Mahkemenin daha ılımlı üyelerinin pozisyonlarını değiştirmesine ve New Deal teklifleri lehinde oy kullanmasına neden oldu. Gelgit dönerken, Sutherland 1938'de emekli oldu.

Hükümet ve iş dünyası hakkındaki muhafazakar görüşlerine rağmen Sutherland, mülkiyet haklarının yanı sıra özgürlük haklarını da savundu. Powell - Alabama davasında, 287 U.S. 45, 53 S. Ct. 55, 77 L. Ed. 158 (1932), Sutherland, iki beyaz kadına cinsel saldırı iddiasıyla ölüm cezasına çarptırılan bir grup genç Afrikalı Amerikalı olan "Scottsboro çocukları"nın mahkumiyetlerini bozdu. Sutherland, altıncı değişikliğin eyalet cezai kovuşturmalarında yeterli hukuk müşavirini garanti ettiğine karar verdi.

Sutherland, 18 Temmuz 1942'de Massachusetts, Stock-bridge'de öldü.


George Sutherland - Tarih

DANIEL JJ SUTHERLAND tarafından

Kökleri geleneğe dayanan ve zamanın perdesi altında gizlenen Sutherland Klanı'nın tarihi muammalarla dolu. Klanın soy ağacının kökeninin, Piktler ve Keltler kabile toplumu ile İskoçya'nın yanı sıra Flandre'de olabileceğine inanılıyor. Tarihin büyük bir kısmı, özellikle erken dönem kaybolmuştur, ancak günümüze ulaşan yazılı kaynaklardan, Klanın şeceresinin izi 12. yüzyılda Moray'den, önce Sutherland ve Caithness'te, daha sonra İskoçya ve başka yerde.

Klan ağacında Sutherland Kontları, Forse Laird'leri ve Duffus ve Skelbo Laird'leri birlikte gövdeyi ve ana dalları temsil eder. Bu makale, bu üç ailenin soyunu vermeyi amaçlamaktadır: daha genç dallardan bazılarını belirtmek ve Klanın tarihini, 19. yüzyılın büyük değişikliklerinden önceki dönem için coğrafi ortamına yerleştirmek. Şefler, reisler ve klan üyeleri, 'klan' veya ortak bir atadan gelen çocuklar, yirmiden fazla nesille yedi asırlık bir süre boyunca o dönemin kayıtlarında hayatta kalır. Highland tarihinde, Culloden, Bastille ve Waterloo çatışmalarını takip eden ve Highlands'deki eski yaşam tarzını söndüren büyük değişikliklerden çok önce, Klanlarının ve topraklarının işlerinde yer aldılar. Klanın çoğu, Bannockburn ve Halidon Hill'e kadar, Aşağı Ülkeler ve Rusya'ya silah hizmeti ve Nova Scotia'dan Batı Hint Adaları'na yeni kolonilerin kurulması gibi tarihi olaylara karıştı. Tarihin bu yönlerine girmek amaçlanmamıştır. Klanın şeceresinin arka planının bir parçasını oluştururlar. Bu makale için bilgiler () ile numaralandırılmış ve aşağıda listelenen basılı kaynaklardan alınmıştır. Bu kaynaklarda pek çok alıntı yapılan, 17. yüzyıldan özellikle ilginç bir çalışmadır. Bu, 'başlangıcından 1630 yılına kadar Sutherland Kontluğu'nun soyağacı tarihidir. 1651 yılının devamı ile, Alexander'ın oğlu Gordonstoun'lu Sir Robert Gordon, Sutherland'ın on birinci Kontu ve Sailagh'lı Gilbert Gordon tarafından 1813'te basılmıştır. Bu kaynaklar, Sutherland Klanı tarihi öğrencileri için çok ilgi çekicidir. .

1. SUTHERLAND AİLESİ, SUTHERLAND EARLS

Klanın ve Earldom hanedanının soyağacı Freskin ile başladı. Kökeni belirsizdir. Onun soyundan gelenler 'Sutherland', daha sonra 'Sutherland' olarak tanımlanır. En büyük oğul, ailenin reisi olarak başarılı oldu ve sonunda klan ve kont şefi oldu (eski İskandinav: Earl reisi, asilzade). 15. yüzyılın başlarında, muhtemelen çok daha erken bir tarihte, aile, sürekli olarak bir ailenin yaşadığı İngiltere'deki en eski evlerden biri olduğuna inanılan Dunrobin Kalesi'nde yaşıyordu. Adı, Robin'in tepesi veya kalesi olan Gaelic Dun Robin'den geliyor.

1. Flaman kökenli olabilecek Sutherland Kontlarının ilk kayıtlı atası olan Freskin, Batı Lothian'da Kral I. David (1124-1153) Strabrock'tan ve Moray'da Duffus'tandı. Freskin, 1166 ve 1171 yılları arasında Kral Aslan William (1165-1214) tarafından oğlu William'a verilen bir tüzükte isimlendirilmiştir.

2. William, Freskin'in oğlu. 1160'da bir tüzüğe tanık oldu, 1166 ile 1171 arasında babasının topraklarına ilişkin bir tüzüğe sahipti ve 1204'te "Invernaryn Şerifi" William Fresekyn olabilirdi. William'ın üç oğlu vardı:

B. Freskin'in oğlu William'ın oğlu, 1195'ten sonra kardeşi Hugh ile birlikte tanık olarak adlandırılan William, Petty, Bracholy, Boharm ve Arteldol Lorduydu ve Bothwell'in Moray'lerinin atası olduğuna inanılıyor.

C. 1203'ten önce Freskin'in oğlu William'ın oğlu ve daha sonra Hugh Freskin ve William'ın kardeşi olan Parsons of Duffus olarak adlandırılan Andrew, 1221'de yaşıyor olabilir.

3. Freskin'in oğlu William'ın oğlu Hugh, 1195'ten itibaren tüzüklerde Hugh Freskin ve Hugh de Moravia olarak da adlandırıldı, Duffus ve Strabrock'un varisiydi. Moray Piskoposu Duffus Lordu ona 1203 ve 1214 yılları arasında Duffus Kalesi'nde ücretsiz bir şapel verdi. 1211'de Skelbo ve Sutherland'deki diğer toprakları da vardı. Skelbo, Invershin ve Fernebucklyn'i Moray Başdiyakozu Gilbert de Moravia'ya verdi. Skelbo, bir okçunun hizmetine ve krala hizmet için verildi. Hugh Freskin 1222'den önce öldü ve üç oğlu bırakarak Duffus kilisesine gömüldü:

B. Hugh Freskin'in oğlu Walter, Ross Kontu Ferquhard'ın kızı Euphemia ile evlendi. ç.'de öldü. 1263 ve Duffus'a gömüldü.

C. 1203 ve 1214 yılları arasında Duffus Parson ve 1222'de Moray Piskoposu olarak adlandırılan Hugh de Moravia'nın oğlu Andrew, Elgin Katedrali'nin inşasına başlamış olabilir. 1242'de öldü.

4. Hugh Freskin'in oğlu ve varisi ve Sutherland Lordu William, babasının Skelbo ve 1211 ile 1222 yılları arasında Başdiyakoz Gilbert'e verilen diğer topraklar tüzüğünü doğruladı. O, 1232'de Sutherland'lı William olarak adlandırıldı ve belki de 1235 ya da daha sonra M.Ö. Sutherland Kontu yaptı. Sir Robert Gordon, Dornoch Katedrali'nin yapımında Caithness Piskoposu Gilbert'e yardım ettiğini belirtir. Earl'ün 1248'de öldüğü ve Katedral'e gömüldüğü söylenir. Bir oğlu William vardı.

5. William, William'ın oğlu ve ikinci Sutherland Kontu. 1263 ve 1266'da Kral'a yapılan ödeme hesaplarında (Alexander m, 1249-1286), 1269'da Ross Kontu tarafından Moray Kilisesi'ne topraklar hakkında bir tüzük tanık oldu. Perthshire'daki Scone'da, 1283-84'te, Norveçli Bebek Margaret'i İskoçya Kraliçesi olarak kabul eden Parlamento'ya katıldı. Kral III.Alexander'ın torunu olarak Norveç Hizmetçisi, 1286'da Kindom of Scotland'ı başardı, ancak İskoçya'ya giderken öldü c. 1290. Earl William, Kral Robert I'in ('Bruce' 1306-1329) taht iddiasını destekledi ve 1296'da Berwick'te saygı belgesini imzaladı, ancak daha sonra İngiliz Kralı'na bağlı kaldı (Edward I, 'Longshanks,' 1272- 1307) ve c öldü. 1306-7. İki oğlu vardı:

a. William, William'ın oğlu ve üçüncü Sutherland Kontu. reşit olmayan babası öldüğünde, 1306-7'de başarılı oldu. Koğuş, Ross Kontu'nun küçük oğlu John'a verildi. 1308-9'da genç Earl, St Andrews'deki Parlamentoya katıldı. Sir Robert Gordon, Earl'ün Bruce'a İskoçya'nın yönetimini veren 1314 savaşı olan Bannockburn'da (Stirling) savaştığını belirtir. Earl, 1320'de, Arbroath Deklarasyonu olarak bilinen, soyluların Papa John XXII'ye, İskoçya'nın İngiliz Tacı'ndan tam bağımsızlığını iddia eden mektubunu imzaladı. 1331'den önce öldü.

6. Kenneth, William'ın oğlu ve dördüncü Sutherland Kontu. 1331'den önce kardeşi William'ın yerine geçti. Berwick kuşatmasını yükseltmeye çalışan İskoçlar, İngilizler tarafından büyük kayıplarla mağlup edildi ve Earl, 1333'te Halidon Tepesi savaşında öldürüldü. Sir Robert Gordon, Earl Kenneth'in evlendiğini belirtiyor. Mar Kontu Donald'ın kızı Mary. İki oğlu ve bir kızı vardı.

B. Nicholas, DUFFUS LAIRDS'IN ATASI

C. Eastachia evli c. 1330 Culbin'li Gilbert Moray

7. Kenneth'in oğlu ve beşinci Sutherland Kontu William, 1333'te babasının yerine geçti. Earl'ün Kilblene'de savaştığına ve Fife Cupar Kalesi kuşatmasına katıldığına inanılıyor. Mart Kontu ile birlikte İngiltere'ye bir baskın düzenledi. Earl William, Kral II. David'in (1329-71) kız kardeşi Margaret ile evlendi. Eşlerin 1345'te Angus, Kincardine ve Aberdeen'de "Sutherland bir krallık haline getirildi" toprakları vardı. 1346'da Angus'taki Dunnottar kayalığı da bir fortalice inşa etme ruhsatına sahipti. 1346-47'de Kontes Prenses Margaret'in ölümünden sonra, Earl Joanna Menteith ile evlendi. Görünüşe göre, 'silahlı birçok adam' ile Earl, Kral II. David'e İngiltere'ye eşlik etti ve her ikisi de 1346'da Durham tarafından Neville's Cross savaşında yakalandı, ancak 1351'de Earl, Newcastle'da Kral'ın fidyesini vermek için güvenli bir davranış sergiledi. Kralın İskoçya'ya dönüşü için Earl, bebek oğlunu ve varisini rehin olarak verdi. 1357'de hem Kont hem de oğlu, Kral'ın fidyesini ödemek için rehin alındı. On yıldan fazla bir süre İngiltere'de kaldılar, ara sıra İskoçya'yı ziyaret ettiler. 1358-59'da Inverness tarafından kraldan Urquhart baronluğu ve kalesini aldılar. Earl William muhtemelen 1370'te öldü, belki de aynı yıl Klan Şefi Dingwallof Iye Mackay ve oğlu Donald'daki cinayetteki rolünün intikamını almak için öldürüldü. Earl William'ın en büyüğü ilk karısından olan üç oğlu vardı:

a. İngiltere'de bir rehine olan John, görünüşe göre hala çok genç, 1361'de Lincoln'de vebadan öldü.

C. Kenneth, FORSE LAIRDS'IN ATASI

8. William'ın oğlu ve altıncı Sutherland Kontu (1389'da veya daha önce) olan Robert, vakanüvis Froissart tarafından 1388'de Batı İngiltere'yi işgal eden İskoçların lideri olarak adlandırılır. 1400-1'de kardeşi Kenneth'e bir Drummoy ve diğer toprakların tüzüğü. Tüzük, Dunrobin Kalesi'ne bilinen en eski referansı verir. Earl, Buchan Kontu Alexander'ın kızı Margaret Stewart ile evlendi ve 1442'de öldüğü söyleniyor. Üç oğlu vardı:

B. Robert, Sir Robert Gordon tarafından Earl Robert'ın oğlu olarak adlandırıldı.

C. Alexander, aynı zamanda Sir Robert tarafından da adlandırılmıştır.

9. Robert'ın oğlu ve yedinci Sutherland Kontu John, amcası Mar Kontu Alexander Stewart'a Flanders c.1408'e kadar eşlik etti. Çağdaş vakanüvis Wyntoun, Mar Kontu'nun, Sutherland'lı John'un "bu yeni, o ülkenin Heretabil Eri'si olan Verew'in bir efendisi olan" bazı yardımcılarını şövalye ilan ettiğini belirtir. 1427'de Earl John, muhtemelen 1406'dan 1424'e kadar İngiltere'de tutulan Kral I. James'in rehinelerinden biriydi. Earl, Yorkshire'daki Pontefract Kalesi'nde hapsedildi ve oradan 1444'te Sutherland'daki Torboll tüzüğünü akrabası Alexander'a verdi. Duffus'lu Sutherland. 1448'de Dunrobin'deydi ve 1451'de karısı Margaret Baillie ile birlikte Sutherland'daki Loth Parish'te arazi verildi. Sir Robert Gordon, Earl John'un 1460'ta öldüğünü ve Sutherland'daki Golspie'deki St Andrew's kilisesine gömüldüğünü belirtiyor. Bir öz oğlu ve bir kızı olmak üzere dört ya da beş oğlu vardı:

a. John'un oğlu ve 1449'da Sutherland Üstadı olarak adlandırılan Alexander, muhtemelen 1456'da veya daha önce öldü.

C. Nicholas, oğlu olarak 1448 tarihli bir tüzükte Earl John tarafından adlandırılmıştır.

NS. Sör Robert Gordon tarafından Strathullie'deki Sutherlands'in (Kildonan tabakası) atası olarak adlandırılan Thomas Beg (Küçük Thomas), Uilligh nehri (Helmsdale nehri) tarafından düz, alçak araziler (srath) ile geçilen geniş bir vadi , Sutherland'daki Kildonan mahallesinde yüksek bir zeminle sınırlanmıştır.

e. Robert, Sir Robert Gordon tarafından 1487'de Aldycharrish'teki (Strath Oykell) çatışmada bulunan Earl'ün amcası olabilir.

F. Janet, 1480'de Westfield'lı Sir Alexander Dunbar'ın oğlu, Cumnock'lu Sir James Dunbar'ın erkek kardeşi Alexander ile evlendi.

G. Thomas Mor (Big Thomas), Sir Robert Gordon tarafından iki oğlu amcaları Earl John tarafından öldürülen Earl'ün doğal oğlu olarak tanımlandı.

10. John'un oğlu ve 1455-56'da isimlendirilen sekizinci Sutherland Kontu John, 1494'te deli ilan edildi ve 1497-98'de Earl ve oğluna Kral IV. James'e eşlik eden Cumnocklu Sir James Dunbar'ın bakımına verildi. (1488-1513). Sir Robert Gordon, Earl'ün Alexander MacDonald'ın bir kızıyla evlendiğini belirtiyor. Littleferry'de Unes nehrini (Dornoch ile Golspie arasındaki Filo Halici) geçerken neredeyse boğulan Adaların Efendisi, bir soyguncu tarafından öldürüldü. Kont'un ikinci karısı, görünüşe göre, 1491'de veya daha önce ölen Fowlis'li John Monro'nun dul eşi Cawdor'lu Cawdor'lu William'ın kızı Fingole idi, 1497-98'de onunla Kont arasında bir boşanma hazırlanıyordu ve üçüncü olarak evlendi. Catherine, 1509-12'de Sutherland Kontesi olarak adlandırıldı. Earl'ün 1508'de öldüğü söyleniyor. İki oğlu ve bir kızı vardı:

B. John ve Sutherland Kontesi'nin kızı Elizabeth, Sir Robert Gordon tarafından verilen 1500 yılında Aboyne'den Adam Gordon ile evlendi. Eşi, Huntly Kontu George'un oğluydu. Elizabeth, kontluğu en büyük oğlu Alexander'a devrederek, 1515'teki "feftment" ile erkek kardeşi John'un yerine geçti. SUTHERLAND EARLS GORDON AİLESİNİN ATASI. Kontes Elizabeth, 1505'te Aberdeen'deki Deeside, Aboyne Kalesi'nde öldü.

C. Sir Robert Gordon tarafından, 1491 doğumlu Balnagown Ross'un kızı tarafından Earl John'un doğal oğlu olarak tanımlanan Alexander, 1509'da on sekiz yaşında olan erkek kardeşinin verasetine karşı çıktı. İskender'in veraset hakkı, üvey kız kardeşi Elizabeth'in varisi başarısız olursa saklı tutuldu. Ayrıca, yılda kırk sarsıntılı arazi ile telafi edildi, ancak 1514'te, üvey kardeşi Robert Munro'nun vekil olarak yardımıyla, kardeşi Earl John'un varisi olarak kız kardeşine karşı çıktı. 1515'te Dunrobin Kalesi'ni ele geçirdi ve elinde tuttu, bunun üzerine Edinburgh'da hapsedildi. 1515'te kaleyi tekrar ele geçirdi, ancak teslim olmaya zorlandı ve 1519-20'de Kintradwell'de Brora tarafından öldürüldü. Strathnaver'den Iye Roy-Mackay'ın kızıyla evlendi ve torunları oldu.

11. John, John ve dokuzuncu Sutherland Kontu'nun oğlu John, 1493'te Kral IV. James'in huzurunda babasıyla birlikte erken yaşta alındı ​​ve 1508'de Kraliyet vesayetine geçti, Earldom, Piskopos Andrew Stewart tarafından yönetiliyordu. Caithness'e ait. 1514'te Perth'de Earl'ün yasal olarak aciz olduğu açıklandı. Halefi sorusunda Earl, kız kardeşi Elizabeth'in ve kocası Adam Gordon'un ve çocuklarının en yakın mirasçıları olduğunu açıkladı. Bir ay sonra 1514'te ölümü, Sutherland Kontlarının ilk hanedanının sonunu işaret etti.

IV. SUTHERLAND AİLESİ, DUFFUS VE SKELBO'NUN LİRLERİ (1)

Aile, Freskin'in soyundan, Sutherland'ın dördüncü Earl'ü Kenneth ve Kontesi Mar Kontu'nun kızı Mary aracılığıyla geldi. Moray'da Elgin tarafından Duffus'ta ve Sutherland'de Dornoch tarafından Skelbo'da, her ikisi de şimdi harabe olan iki saygıdeğer antik kalede yaşıyorlardı.

1. Dördüncü Sutherland Kontu Kenneth'in oğlu Nicholas, 1360 yılında Sutherland'daki Torboll'u, bir şövalyenin hizmeti için Sutherland'ın beşinci Kontu olan kardeşi William'dan aldı. Eşi, Reginald le Cheyne ve Mary'nin kızı Mary, Duffus'un Leydisi, ona Moray'daki Duffus'un bir bölümünü getirdi ve Caithness'e yerleşti 1370'de Nicholas, Dingwall'daki (Ross-shire) cinayete karıştı. Klan ve Donald, oğlu. 1408'de Duffus Kalesi Lordu olarak adlandırılır. İki oğlu vardı:

a. Nicholas'ın oğlu ve varisi John, babası tarafından kardeşi Henry'ye toprak verilmesini onayladı m 1408. 1424'ten 1427'ye kadar John, Kral I. James'in rehinelerinden biriydi (İngiltere'de 1406-24 tutsak, r. 1424-37) ).

B. Henry (2 gibi). 2. Nicholas'ın oğlu Henry, Torboll'u Sutherland'ın altıncı Earl'ü Robert'tan aldı. 1434'ten önce öldü. Margaret Mureff (Moray), 1438'de Sutherland'lı Henry'nin eşi olarak adlandırılır. Ölümünde, Caithness'te Wick'in doğusunda, Tanrı'nın ve 'Haly Kirk'ün ve St. Wick'in Fergus hamisi. Henry'nin bir oğlu vardı (3 gibi).

3. Alexander, Torboll'da babası Henry'nin yerine geçti ve 1434'te veya daha önce, Batı Lothian'daki yirmi bir öküz toprağı Sanquhar'dan Robert Crichton'a verdiğinde Duffus'a sahipti. Forfar'daki topraklarını sattı. 1444'te Sutherland'ın yedinci Kontu John'dan Torboll topraklarını teyit etti ve o zamanlar Pontefract Kalesi'nde rehin olan Kont'u ziyaret etmiş olabilir. 1541 tarihli bir taç yazısında, Duffus'lu Sir Alexander Sutherland olarak adlandırılmıştır. Görünüşe göre 1484'ten önce öldü ve iki oğlu ve üç kızı oldu:

B. Angus, Torboll'a sahipti ve Christina ile evlendi. Sorunları vardı.

C. 1502'de hayatta olan Isabella, Westfield'den Alexander Dunbar ile evlendi.

NS. Duffus'lu Alexander Sutherland'ın kızı olduğu söylenen Dorothea, eşi Alexander Ross'un 1486'daki Alli Charrais savaşında ölümüne katkıda bulunan sebep olarak adlandırılmıştır (Not: Sir Robert Gordon, 1487'de Aldycharrish'te olduğu gibi savaştan bahseder, DJJS).

e. Muriel'in İskender'in başka bir kızı olduğu söyleniyor, Meldrum'dan Alexander Seton ve Stanywood'dan Andrew Fraser ile evlendi ve 1501'de Stanywood'un Taç tüzüğü vardı.

4. William, 1451'de 'Berydall' (Caithness'te Berriedale) olarak adlandırılır ve Alexander Sutherland'ın ve karısı Muriel'in oğlu ve görünür varisi olarak adlandırılır. 1474'ten kısa bir süre sonra öldü. İki oğlu ve bir kızı oldu:

a. Muhtemelen 1475'te Strabrock'un bir parçası olan Alexander, 1479'dan önce 'Sutherland'lı Ald Alexander'ın torunu olarak öldü ve 1494'te Strabrock'lu Alexander Sutherland'ın kızı olarak adlandırılan ve Duffus'un yerine geçen ve Caithness'e çıkan bir kızı Christina bıraktı. C ile evlendi. 1489 William Oliphant ve daha sonra Pratisli Sir Thomas Lundin. Chnstina ve amcası William Sutherland arasındaki bir anlaşmazlık, Papa'ya yapılan bir itirazla çözüldü, c. 1507.

C. Isabel, 1474'te Kilravock'tan daha genç olan Hew Rose ile evlendi.

5. William'ın ardından ikinci olarak kabul edilen William, 1484'te Quarrelwood ve Duffus'a ve 1507'de Duffus'un bir Crown tüzüğüne sahipti. Yeğeni Christina'nın meşruiyetini suçladı. 1514'te veya daha önce, belki de 1513'te Kral IV. James (1488-1513) yönetimindeki İskoçların yenilgisi olan Flodden (Berwiek) savaşında öldü. William görünüşe göre Janet Innes 'Lady Greeship ile evlendi. ' ve bir oğlu (6 gibi) vardı.

6. William'ın oğlu William, Duffus'a sahipti. muhtemelen 1513-14'te veya öncesinde Quarrelwood'a da sahipti. ve 1519-26 istilasıyla babasının Birchmond (Nairn'deki Brichtmony) topraklarına sahip oldu. 1524'te Ring James V (1513-42) ona Kinstear'ı (Nairn) verdi. 1525'te Torboll ve Pronsy'ye sahipti. Dornoch mahallesindeki Pronsy Kalesi'nin toprak işleri, eski bir kalenin kalıntılarıdır. Bu topraklar daha önce derebeyleri olarak Elizabeth, Sutherland Kontesi ve Adam Gordon'dan Angus'un (3b olarak) oğlu Hugh Sutherland tarafından tutulmuştu. Innes'li Alexander Innes'in kızı Janet ile evlendi ve 1529'da öldü. İki oğlu ve bir kızı oldu:

B. Alexander, 1512'de Duffus Rektörü, 1524'te Duffus Kalesi şapeli için Papaz ve Caithness Dekanı (bir katedral için bölüm başkanı) idi. (Sutherland Kontluğu da dahil olmak üzere Caithness piskoposluğunda Dornoch katedralini kuranlar, Caithness Piskoposu ve Dornoch'un koruyucu azizi Moray Gilbert'ti. ölüm günü) ebeveynleri, kardeşi William ve diğerleri için. 1549'da torunu Alexander Sutherland of Duffus'un küratörüydü ve 1551'de hala hayattaydı.

C. Elizabeth, Caithness'in üçüncü Earl'ü John ile evlendi.

7. William, 1527-29'da Brichtmony, Kinstearie ve Auldearn topraklarında Elgin ve Nairn'de Duffus ve Quarrelwood'dan babası William Sutherland'ın en büyük oğlu olarak başarılı oldu. 1529'da John Kynnard'dan, Sutherland Kontu'nun derebeyliğindeki Skelbo da dahil olmak üzere bazı toprakları satın aldı, 2300 merk İskoç ödedi ve kiracı ve vassal olarak (bir lordun savaşta çağırabileceği adamlar) bir malikane verdi. Kont. 1530'da Kral James V, daha önce Farr'dan Hugh Mackay tarafından tutulan Stratnaver'da ona belirli haklar verdi. Sir Robert Gordon tarafından belirtildiği gibi, Duffus'lu William Sutherland, Caithness Piskoposu'nun kışkırtmasıyla 1530'da Gunn Klanı tarafından Thurso'da öldürüldü. Bir oğlu vardı (8 yaşında).

8. Duffus'lu William Sutherland'ın oğlu William, Piskopos'a babasının ölümüyle ilgili hesap vermesi için meydan okudu. Piskopos meydan okumasını görmezden geldiğinde. genç lord Boyutlu Piskoposun hizmetkarları, bunun üzerine o ve Caithness Dekanı amcası hapsedildi ve Danışma Meclisi tarafından Piskoposla barış yapmaya zorlandı. 1535'te William, Terboll'un diğer topraklarını miras aldı ve 1540'ta Kinsteary ve Brichtmony'yi Calder'den John Campbell'a verdi. 1542'de bir jüri, onu babasının Inverness-shire'daki toprak ve kiralardaki gaspının yasal varisi ilan etti. Ayrıca 1542'de Farr'dan Donald Mackay ile 1530'da babasına verilen topraklar üzerinde şiddetli bir anlaşmazlığı çözdü, Earl Moray hakem olarak görev yaptı. William 1543'te öldü. Eşi Elizabeth, ikinci olarak Culbardie'li James Murray ile evlendi. Dört oğlu vardı:

B. 1562'de tanık olan Evelix'li William (Dornoch cemaati), 1566'da Berriedale Kalesi'nin (Caithness) alınmasına ve 1570'te Dornoch'a yapılan baskına katıldı. Piskopos Gilbert'in küllerini dağıttığı söylenir. Moray ('Aziz Gilbert') ve kısa süre sonra öldü. (Kale artık çok daha azaltılmış bir harabedir).

C. 1562 ve 1566 tüzüklerinde adı geçen 1562'de tanık olan Nicholas, 1566'da Berriedale'deydi.

NS. Walter (muhtemelen yanlışlıkla) 1562'de İskender'in kardeşi olarak adlandırılır).

9. Alexander, 1544'ten önce Duffus'lu babası William Sutherland'ın yerine geçti. 1554'te hala küçüktü, Sutherland Kontu'nun Skelbo topraklarında ve kalesinde, ayrıca Invershin ve diğer topraklarda derebeyi olarak muafiyetinden etkilenmişti. 1555'te Duffus sasinesine sahipti. 1562'de Sutherland Kontu Skelbo'yu yaptı. Invershin, Pronsy, Torboll ve Sutherland'deki diğer tüm topraklar, Duffus'tan Alexander Sutherland tarafından "koğuş ve yardım" ve Skelbo Baronluğu'na diğer hizmetler için verilecek. 1560'ta ilk inanç itirafını onaylayan Parlamento'ya katıldı. 1563'te Earl, Earldom'u kaybetmişti ve Alexander, Skelbo'yu Crown'dan aldı. 1559'da Duffus lordu ve Caithness Kontu, en büyük çocuklarının evlenmesi için anlaşmaya vardılar. Earl'ün anlaşmazlıklarına karıştı ve muhtemelen kardeşleri tarafından Berriedale Kalesi'nin Lord Oliphant'tan alınmasına razı oldu. Alexander ayrıca 1567 ve 1570'de Dornoch'a yapılan baskınlarda Earl'ün adamlarıyla birlikte yer aldı. Freuchie'den James Grant'in kızı Janet ile evlendi (1552-53). İkinci olarak Auchterless'lı James Dempster (1577 sözleşmesi) ile evlendi. İskender'in üç oğlu ve bir kızı vardı:

a. İskender, c doğumlu. 1554, Elizabeth Sinclair ile yaptığı evlilik sözleşmesinde adlandırılmıştır.

C. 1561'de doğan James, James'in babası Alexander'ın 'bir aygırlı beş meris (kısrak)' verdiği ve çocuğun yararına 'dört meris' eklediği 'Angus Hectorsone ile koruyucu aileye' yerleştirildi. 1590'da James, annesi Janet Grant için daha dikkatliydi. Strichen'li Thomas Fraser'ın kızı Violet ile olan evliliğinde, Moray'de kardeşi William Sutherland'dan Kinstear vardı. James, Kinstearie'deki Sutherlands'in atasıydı.

NS. Elizabeth (1590 sözleşmesi) Pittendreich'li Archibald Douglas ile evlendi.

10. William, son and heir to Alexander Sutherland of Duffus, was infeft in Duffus and Greschip in 1579. He also had Quarrelwood and other lands. Although he had been appointed to keep order in the North, he is said to have reset (harbour) 'broken men' (outlaws) on his lands in 1587. In 1588 Duffus, Quarrelwood, Greschip and other lands were made into the barony of Duffus. In 1606 the laird of Duffus and the burgh of Dornoch agreed the boundaries between the lands of Skelbo and Pronsy and the burgh, a subject of prolonged disputers He married first in 1579. Margaret, daughter of George Sinclair, Earl of Caithness and secondly, before 1604, Margaret. daughter of William Macintosh of Dunachton. He died in 1616 and had three sons and two daughters:

B. James bought Kinminitie in Banff from James Grant of Freuehie and Blanch in the parish of Rogart in Sutherland together with other lands from John Murray of Aberscors in 1624. He was tutor to his nephew Alexander Sutherland of Duffus. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir John Seaton of Mionylangain, Longford. He died in 1679-80 and was ancestor to the Sutherlands of Kinminitie

C. John, ancestor to the Sutherlands of Clyne. (parish of Clyne, Sutherland).

NS. Margaret married (contract of 1610) Colonel Robert Monro of Fowlis. O genç öldü.

e. Janet married George Ogilvy, first Lord Banff.

11. William, son and heir to his father William Sutherland of Duffus inherited the barony of Skelbo in 1616. He was involved in several disputes with Sir Robert Gordon, with the Earl of Sutherland in or before 1617 over tithes and with John Gordon of Embo, a feud breaking out in 1625. In 1612 he married Jean or Janet, daughter of John Grant of Freuchie. He died in 1626 and had three sons and one daughter:

B. William, heir to his brother John in the lands of Kinminitie and other lands in Banff, infeft in 1662: named in the testament of his brother Lord Duffus in 1674 had Inverhassie in 1694.

C. John, named in 1649 as brother to the laird of Duffus and Commissioner of Supply for Elgin. He married (contract of 1656) Isabella, daughter of David Ross of Bainagown who married secondly (contract of 1659) James Innes Lichnet. John died in or before 1658.

NS. Anne married Patrick Grant. As lieutenant-colonel took part in the battle of Worcester in England in 1651. She was still alive in 1663.

12. Alexander succeeded his father William when five years old In 1627 she was named heir to Duffus. His uncle, James Sutherland of Kinminitie, became his tutor. In 1641 Alexandar accompanied the Earl of Sutherland on his visit to England attending that same year the Parliament at Edinburgh and the arrival of King Charles I (1625-49). He was knighted before 1643 and served as a Commissioner for Sutherland in 1646. In 1647 he petitioned and received from Parliament, for loss in adhering to the Covenant, 3000 merks Scots of which one third for his uncle James Sutherland. He travelled in France and Holland returning from the continent with King Charles II (1649-85) to Scotland in 1650. He was fined for his opposition to Cromwell and the taking of Perth with 600 men. Alexander married first Jean, daughter of Colin Mackenzie, Earl of Seaforth secondly Jean, daughter of Sir Robert Innes of Innes thirdly Margaret, daughter of James Stewart, Ear] of Moray and fourthly Margaret, daughter of William, Lord Forbes. Lord Duffus died in 1674. He had three sons and three daughters:

C. Robin, named in his father's letter of 1666.

NS. Marie, (named as Robin her brother).

e. Margaret, named in her father's will.

F. Henrietta, named in her father's will, married George, Earl of Linlithgow.

13. James, second Lord Duffus, succeeded his father Alexander in 1674. He attended the Scots Parliament in 1678, 1681 and 1685, and became a Privy Councillor in 1686. Much indebted he sold or mortgaged his estate to his son James. In 1688, apparently in exasperation, Duffus drew his sword and killed William Ross of Kindeace, who had been pressing him for payment. Duffus fled to England but later appears to have been pardoned. In 1639 he supported the Prince of Orange and in 1690 took oath of allegiance to him as King William III (1689-1702). In 1695 his privilege of fairs and markets at Duffus was enacted in the Scots Parliament and in 1701 he supported the Darien Company, the dream of a Scots merchant colony in Central America (1698-1700), perhaps the worst economic disaster in Scottish history. He married (contract of 1674) Margaret daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie, Earl of Seaforth. He died in 1705 and had five sons and seven daughters:

B. James, advocate, in 1704 acquired his father's estate with a loan from Archibald Dunbar of Thunderton. Unable to pay, he parted with the estate to his creditor. After he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Dunbar of Hempriggs. Assuming the surname Dunbar, he was made a baronet. He died before 1739 and had issue.

C. William of Roscommon married (contract of 1702) Helen, daughter of William Duff of Dipple. As a Jacobite he left Scotland after the rebellion of 1716.

F. Elizabeth had dancing lessons in Edinburgh in 1704 and married (contract of 1709) Sir John Gordon of Embo.

ben. Mary married James Sinclair of Mey.

J. Katharine married John Cuthbert, town clerk of Inverness.

k. Isabel was buried at Greyfriars, Edinburgh, in 1694.

1. Esther married John Ross. They were infeft in Easter Balvraid, parish of Dornoch, Sutherland, in 1711.

14. Kenneth, third Lord Duffus, succeeded his father James in 1705. As a captain in the Queen's Navy (Queen Anne.1702-14), he, in 1711 with his frigate of forty-six guns, engaged eight French privateers, and wounded by five bullets was captured. Although he voted for the Union of the English and Scottish Parliaments (1707), he joined the Jacobites in 1715, leading that year more than four hundred of the rebels into Tain and there proclaimed the Chevalier St. George, 'The Old Pretender' as King James VIII. The Lairds of Culloden and Kilravock refusing to surrender, the rebels marched South to join the Earl of Mar at Perth. After the Jacobite defeat of 171S the estate of Duffus was forfeited and Lord Duffus, by way of Caithness, escaped to Sweden. Preparing to return to Britain he was seized in Hamburg and imprisoned in the Tower of London but freed without trial in 1717. Later he entered the Russian Navy. He married (contract dated 1708) Charlotta Chnstina, daughter of Eric Sioblade, Governor of Gottenberg in Sweden. He died in or before 1734 and had one son and two daughters:

B. Charlotta named in 1778 as one ef her mother's executors.

C. Anna married Baron and Count Marshall Gustaff Adolf Palbitzki of Sweden. She also was named in 1778 as one of her mother's executors.

15. Eric, baptized in 1710, succeeded his father Kenneth as titular Lord Duffus. In 1734 he petitioned King George II (1727-60) but his claim to the Lordship of Duffus was reflected by the House of Lords. It is said that Eric was an ensign in Colonel Disney's regiment in 1731. Residing at Ackergill Castle by Wick in Caithness and on a friendly footing with the Earl of Sutherland, he supported King George in the Jacobite rising of 1745-46. He married his cousin Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Dunbar of Hempriggs. He died probably at Skelbo, perhaps at Skibo, in 1763 and had two sons and three daughters:

a. James born in 1747, named as heir to his father in 1770 was captain in the 26th Regiment when he eloped with Mary, daughter of James Hayt Earl of Erroll, wife of General John Scott of Balcomie, who divorced her in 1771. The title of Lord Duffus was restored to James by Act of Parliament in 1826. He died unmarried at Marylebone in 1827. His death marked the end of the Sutherlands of Duffus.

C. Elizabeth married first Captain Alexander Sinclair, son of Sir William Sinclair of Keiss secondly Charies Sinclair of Olrig and thirdly, in 1772, the Reverend James Rudd, rector in Yorkshire.

e. Anne, third daughter born 1750, married at Embo in 1766 George Mackay of Skibo, advocate in 1737, 'captain in one of London's independent companies' in 1745. (1)

(Words marked- may require explanation)

Archdeacon: chief of the attendants upon a bishop.

Chalder: 16 bolls or 64 firlots of corn (1 boll: 6 imperial bushels 1 bushel: 2218.19 cubic inches). Charter: document or evidence for certain privileges or rights granted, originally by the sovereign to a subject.

Crag of Dunnottar: Gaelic, creag, rock (of difficult access): locality with ruins of ancient stronghold on the coast of Angus.

Esquire: old French, esquier, shield bearer in chivalry, a young man of gentle birth.

Fier: the owner of the fee-simple of a property (as opposed to a life-renter). Fee-simple: an estate in land belonging to the owner and his heirs for ever in absolute possession.

Forfeited: from forfeit, to lose in consequence of a breach of law.

Homage roll: (in feudal law) record or list of acknowledgement of allegiance by tenants or vassals declaring themselves men of the king or the lord of whom they hold and bind themselves in service.

Ilk: same, identical of that ilk, of the same place, territorial designation or name.

Infeftment: from enfeoffment, the action of putting a tenant legally in possession of a holding, or to surrender a holding.

Lord apperand: lord from old English hlaford, (hlaf, loaf and weard, ward or keepers master, ruler. Apperand: heir apparent, manifest heir, successor.

Master: heir apparent to a Scottish peerage (noble title).

Moravia: Latin for Moray or Morayshlre.

Merk: money of the value of a mark weight of pure silver or, in history, 2/3 of the L Sterling. In Scotland, a coin worth 13 shillings and four pence Snots: 13 l/2 pence English (1480) .

Oxgang: the eighth part of the ploughland, 10 to 18 or more acres. Ploughland: the unit of assessment of land after the Norman Conquest (1066) based upon the area capable of being tilled by one plough team of eight oxen in the year.

Parson: holder of a parochial benefice in full possession of its rights and dues, (clergyman).

Petty, Bracholy, Boharm and Arkldol:

Privy Council: the counsellors of the sovereign.

Regality: sovereign rule, territorial jurisdiction of a royal nature granted by the king area subject to a lord of regality.

Sasine: the act of giving possession of feudal property.

Sheriff: the representative of the sovereign, responsible for certain administrative functions and the execution of the law in a shire.

Teinds: from teind. tenth part or tithe of yearly produce from land, payable for the support of the clergy by the laity.

Thane: person ranking with the son of an earl, holding lands of the king.

Toune: from Gaelic, dun, fortified place, hence enclosed ground. 'In Scotland a single house may be called a town' (Sir Walter Scott in 'Waverley').

Vassal: In the feudal system, one holding lands from a superior on conditions of homage and allegiance. (See homage).

Ward and Relief: Ward, the control and use of the lands of a deceased tenant by knight service and the guardianship of the infant heir which belonged to the superior until the heir attained majority. Relief: a payment made by the heir of a feudal tenant on taking up possession of the vacant estate.

Writer to the Signet: a clerk in the Secretary of State's office who prepared writs to pass the royal signet later a law- agent practicing before the Court of Session and preparing Crown writs, charters, etc. Signet: a Small seal.

1. Paul, Sir James Balfour, Lord Lyon King of Arms, 'The Scots Peerage founded on Wood's edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that Kingdom', Vol. VIII, Edinburgh, 1904-14.

2. Fraser, Sir William, 'The Sutherland Book', 3 Vols., Edinburgh, 1894.

3. Henderson, John, 'Caithness Family History', Edinburgh, 1884.

4. Grant, F. J. 'Register of Marriage, Edinburgh 1751-1800'. Edinburgh, 1922.

5. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary and other sources.


George Sutherland, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, U.S. Senator and Congressman, and Women’s Rights Advocate

George Sutherland, the only Supreme Court Justice to come from Utah, supported women’s rights, particularly the right of women to vote and to engage as full members in American society. Sutherland was born in Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire, England, March 25, 1862, to Frances Slater and Alexander George Sutherland. The extended Sutherland family joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and George and his parents traveled to Utah by ship, train, and wagon when he was only eighteen months old. Once in Utah, they settled in Springville, where George described his childhood as very simple and very hard. Because of his father’s problems with alcoholism, his parents left the church, and George was never baptized as a church member.

George quit school at age 12 and worked full-time to save money to attend Brigham Young Academy (BYA), a precursor to Brigham Young University. At age 16 he started at BYA, attended for two years, and then attended University of Michigan Law School for one year.

George Sutherland. Courtesy of Utah State Historical Society.

Returning to Utah, George married Rosamond Lee in 1883. They eventually became parents to three children. He practiced law with his father in Provo for three years, and then formed his own firm with Samuel Thurman in Salt Lake City. He entered politics, and in 1895 served on a commission drafting the Utah Constitution that provided for women’s suffrage, a cause which George would champion throughout his career.

In 1896, when Utah was admitted as a state to the Union, George, a Republican, was elected to the Senate in the first state legislature. In 1900, he was elected to Utah’s only U.S. Congressional seat, and in 1905, the Utah State Legislature elected him to the U.S. Senate, the method at the time for selecting U.S. senators.

Over the next decade, George became a leading figure in the national suffrage movement. Both he and his wife gave speeches and held meetings supporting the right to vote. The Sutherlands became friends with Alice Paul, the leader of the more radical Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, later the National Women’s Party, and helped her with events staged to garner support for the movement. In August 1915, women held a meeting in Salt Lake City to welcome Paul and her automobile train traveling from the Women’s Voter Convention in San Francisco to Washington, D.C. that gathered more than 500,00 signatures in support of a women’s suffrage amendment. At the meeting, Annie Wells Cannon, daughter of leading Utah suffragist Emmeline B. Wells, thanked George for his support, and he gave a few supporting remarks. When the train arrived in Washington, D.C. several months later, George and Wyoming Congressman Franklin Wheeler Mendell greeted it. On December 6, Representative Mendell introduced the Susan B. Anthony Amendment into the U.S. House, and the next day George introduced it into the U.S. Senate.

Senator George Sutherland, Winifred Mallon, Reverend Olympia Brown, Alva Belmont at the Utah State Capitol welcoming the suffrage envoys from the San Francisco Exposition that were carrying petitions to Washington D.C. in October 1915. Courtesy of the National Women’s Party.

On December 13, Paul sponsored a mass meeting that took place at the Belasco Theatre in Washington D.C. with George as a main speaker. He based his arguments on the practical experience of the twelve states, including Utah, that had already granted the vote to women:

To my mind the right of women to vote is as obvious as my own right. . . When we have proven the case for universal manhood suffrage we have made clear the case for womanhood suffrage as well. Women on average are as intelligent as men, as patriotic as men, as anxious for good government as men, and to deprive them of the right to participate in the government is to make an arbitrary division . . . .

Flyer advertising Senator George Sutherland of Utah as a speaker for a mass meeting of the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage in Belasco, Massachusetts. Courtesy of Library of Congress.

He closed by affirming that “women’s fundamental nature” would not change once they were given the right to vote indeed, “it [voting] will deepen her sense of responsibility, give her a more intelligent appreciation of her country’s needs and broaden her opportunity to ‘do her bit’ for the common good.”

The amendment failed in 1916. George, too, suffered defeat after two terms in Congress, a defeat he felt came about because of his support for the amendment. He returned to legal practice and became President of the American Bar Association in 1918. He served as a campaign and later presidential advisor to Warren G. Harding. After the 19th Amendment was ratified in 1920, Alice Paul moved on to crafting the Equal Rights Amendment and consulted with George. Both agreed that the law should treat women and men equally no matter their alleged differences.

Supreme Court Justice George Sutherland. Courtesy of Utah State Historical Society.

President Harding appointed George an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court in 1922, and he served until 1938. An opponent of Roosevelt’s New Deal legislation, the conservative George became known as one of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. His most important opinion was the majority opinion rendered in the case of Powell v Alabama, which helped lead to the constitutional right to counsel in all criminal cases and a recognition of the illegality of systematically excluding African Americans from juries.

George died July 18, 1942, while on vacation in Stockbridge, Massachusetts.

Ann Engar is a professor/lecturer in the Honors College and LEAP Program at the University of Utah, specializing in intellectual history, pedagogy, and law. She has authored numerous short biographies, including for the online NASW project, and serves on the Holladay Historical Commission.


GeçmişLink.org

Spokane historian Jerome Peltier interviewed pioneer George Washington Sutherland (1854-1949) in the 1940s and in 1989 prepared this account for The Pacific Northwesterner. It describes Sutherland’s trip West, his years as a cowboy, and his service as a volunteer in the Nez Perce War. This essay was originally published in the Spring 1989 issue of The Pacific Northwesterner (Vol. 33, No. 1), pp. 8-14, and is here reprinted with permission.

A Young Man Goes West

George Washington Sutherland's grand adventure began in 1872 when, as an 18-year-old, he felt the urge to see the wide-open spaces of the American West. He had read letters from William Purington to his father, Captain George Purington, of Bowdoinham, Maine, that described in glowing terms the fertile grasslands of Washington Territory and the opportunities available to anyone daring to leave home and start again in a new land. At the time, George had been working as a farmhand for Purington, who had been a captain in the Union Army during the Civil War. When the captain mentioned that he and his family would soon be leaving to join William at his cattle ranch, George asked if he could go with them.

Unfortunately, George had a serious problem. He had only $15 to his name. Somehow, George convinced the captain to lend him $140, and his father chipped in $25 making a total of $180. The Puringtons were leaving on Friday, so three days before that, George asked his mother for permission to go. After much hesitation, she reluctantly agreed. In the meantime, Captain Purington had gone to Boston and purchased George's train ticket to San Francisco for $122. George was on his way on August 20, 1872, with $58 that had to last him until he reached the Purington ranch somewhere in the southeast part of Washington Territory.

This is the story that George Sutherland related to me as he sat on his bed at Sacred Heart Hospital in Spokane in 1941, when he was 87 years old. He later told me of many other events that happened to him during his long and active life, but exciting as they were, all were but an anticlimax to his trip west.

West by Rail

The Puringtons had first-class tickets and George was traveling second class, so George didn't see them again during the entire trip. For the first time in his life, he was alone without friends or family. The train did not have a diner, so for the entire nine-day trip, George ate from a large basket of food his mother had packed for him. At night, he slept on his stiff uncomfortable seat in the unheated car, covered by a pair of blankets that his mother had insisted he take with him.

He crossed the Mississippi at St. Louis over the Eads steel bridge, an engineering marvel for its time. At Council Bluffs, Iowa, he walked across the bridge over the Missouri River to Omaha, where he boarded a Union Pacific train. He stopped over in Cheyenne, Wyoming, for a day and a half. Wyoming was the first state in the nation to grant women the right to vote and he noted that many women in the town were voting. He continued his trip through Rawlins, Wyoming, and Ogden, Utah, passing bands of antelope as the train chugged along the plains. Once a herd of buffalo thundered down the tracks, almost destroying them. Finally the train crossed the deserts of northern Nevada and reached Sacramento. He arrived in San Francisco on August 29 to be met at the station by a confidence man who tried to swindle him out of his meager funds. George ignored him and hurried to the steamboat office where he bought a third-class passage to Portland, Oregon, for $20.

About 4 p.m. the next day, he left on what he called "the old tub, the Oroflame, a sidewheeler." He continued, "No one would travel on such a boat today. When we got outside the Golden Gate, the boat began to pitch and wallow for four days until we got to Astoria."

At that time, Astoria consisted of a cluster of huts on pilings. The boat tied up there for half-a-day while cargo and mail from the East were unloaded. He finally reached Portland by evening and learned that another boat would be leaving for Wallula the next morning. He hurriedly spent $12 of his rapidly depleting money for a ticket. He couldn't afford to buy meals or a berth, as they cost extra.

His boat left early the next morning and by 10 a.m. had reached the cascades of the Columbia River, where cargo had to be unloaded and carried by cars on a narrow gauge railroad six miles upriver to another steamer, which continued the trip to The Dalles. Following an overnight stay, freight and passengers were again transported by narrow-gauge railroad to another steamer eight miles upriver, which went as far as Umatilla, where it stopped for the night. At that time, Umatilla was a lively town of about 3,000 people. All supplies for eastern Oregon and southern Idaho came through there until the Oregon Steam Navigation Company constructed a rail line to its docks on the Columbia at Wallula. Supplies then went from there to Walla Walla, which became the main distribution point.

The Real West

The day he arrived at Umatilla was windy, and sand was piling up in the streets in drifts three or four-feet deep, according to George. After a night in town, he boarded another steamer, which took him to Wallula where he arrived penniless and hungry. He had spent the last of his money for a berth. He made a deal with a teamster to haul his rifle and baggage to Walla Walla while he walked, arriving there about 6 p.m. after a hot, dusty hike. He went to the St. Louis Hotel and told the proprietor that he wanted a meal and a place to sleep, but had no money. The proprietor said, "Young man, the world is yours. Help yourself." George took him at his word, had a good meal and a good night's sleep.

George recalled, "Every other door was a saloon. There were many teamsters. I watched some of them packing mules, as many as 75 to a train (for the trip to the mines), and the mule trains were strung out for miles. There were many large corrals mainly for the mules."

Walla walla was the supply center for the region. "The mules were hitched in teams of six, eight or 10 to large freight wagons. Horsedrawn stage coaches were coming and going through town. Men worked hard and played hard, and saloons had plenty of patrons. Card games were going on all of the time."

In his wanderings around town, George located a teamster who had heard about the Purington ranch and was passing by it. He agreed to transport George's belongings and guide George there if George was willing to walk all of the way. George borrowed $2.50 from his new-found friend, paid his hotel and food bill with it, and left that afternoon on the last leg of his journey. This would be a jaunt of 80 miles to the area around Penewawa on the north side of the Snake River approximately 25 miles due west of present-day Pullman, Washington.

The man's team consisted of a small mule hitched to an unkempt, scrawny cayuse pony, barely able to pull an unloaded wagon let alone a loaded one. George felt so sorry for the animals that he left his trunk behind, taking only his blankets, his rifle, a pistol, and a saddle bag. He had brought the guns as protection from the "Indians and badmen" that he understood "infested" the West at that time.

The first day's travel brought them to what George called Whetstone Hollow, which offered good grazing for the team. The road was merely an Indian trail showing traces of heavy use. In places, the ruts were two-feet deep, while in other places, the trail could barely be discerned. Drivers often deviated from the track, going where they felt they could make the best time.

The second day, George observed that the hills were dry and parched, although they were covered with nutritious bunch grass. By noon, they reached the Tucannon River where a man named Platter ran a crude rest station. After climbing out of the Tucannon Valley, they started down toward the Snake River on a narrow hilly road, the wagon nearly tipping over several times. Finally the river came into view, glistening in the distance, and Brown's Ferry became visible. While they were hastening down the Snake River breaks, a post rider charged past them, carrying the mail from Kelton, Utah, to points north via Walla Walla, Colfax, Spokan Bridge, Rathdrum, Idaho, and by boat across Lake Pend Oreille to Missoula, Montana.

Two other Snake River crossings existed at that time: Lyon's Ferry near the mouth of the Palouse River and the ferry at Lewiston where the Snake joins the Clearwater River. Dusty sign-boards advertised these ferries declaring that plenty of wood, water, and grass was present along the road.

George described Brown's rest stop as a square box shanty and a shed in which a man could rest himself and his horse. This was the first habitation George encountered since leaving the Tucannon River. After crossing the river, George helped pull the wagon up the hill where the team found good grass and water, as the signs had promised.

By noon of September 17, George arrived at Gooseberry Springs in Whitman County and his teamster friend told him that after they reached Alki Flat, he could easily find the Purington ranch by heading south toward the Snake River. George thanked him, gave him his pistol as a pawn for his $2. 50 debt, and they parted.

Riding the Range

With a feeling of loneliness, the youth started across the rolling hills. No other human being was in sight. It seemed as if there was always a hill ahead of him, but finally, he came to a ravine that led down to the Snake River, where he quenched his thirst. He realized that he had turned south too soon and was lost, but after walking several more miles, he saw a small shack ahead of him. The sun was setting and his pack was heavy, so the hut was a welcome sight. He knocked on the door and a surprised William Purington answered with a warm welcome for the weary traveler.

A man named Holbrook was staying with Purington at the time, and these two men were George's first acquaintances in Whitman County. He rested a few days and after getting a horse, went out with the other hired hands to learn how to be a cowpuncher. The next phase of his life had begun.

"My wages were $25 a month and board, and I wasn't worth that much as I was a green Easterner. I did become quite a cowboy eventually," George said. It was not long before George became fully trained in riding and rounding up cattle. Soon he was able to go on long trips in search of strays.

"There were thousands of cattle down there, and we had a huge range to cover. My employer ran a herd of from 500 to 1,000 head. Our range extended from Lewiston to the Palouse, 90 miles east and west, and from the Snake River to Spokane Falls." There were no fences. Cattle from various ranches mingled freely as they grazed, and were separated by brand at roundup time.

"Spokane Falls was a poor feeding ground, so we did not give it much attention. I think that the first time I was there, there were only two houses in the place. Colfax was the same."

In a conversation several years later, George described the rangeland in the Snake River country:

"Along the banks of the river, large portions of the hills at the north had slid down the canyons (in the past) due to cloudbursts and the continuous flow of small streams, and had formed bars . which were very fertile. A number of Indians had claimed this land, but then the settlers started coming in, some of whom took squatter's rights on it. This, of course, caused trouble right away. The first place to become involved was four miles above the place that I was working -- Penewawa.

"There were two brothers named Smith who were cattlemen, who were the first to settle on this land and they thought that the Indians were not entitled to such good land and should be back on a reservation, so they took it for themselves. This land is in cultivation today [1945] with fine orchards of peaches, pears and cherries, and is worth many thousands of dollars.

"There were two other bars on the river that received freight from Portland from a steamer that called once a week. One was at Almota, where Henry Spalding, son of the missionary, ran a store and a hotel. The other was at Wawawai. Senator La Follette of Wisconsin and the Holt brothers had a large orchard there and shipped quantities of fruit all over the country. There was trouble here between the Indians and settlers and one Indian was killed by the man I was working for. The trouble was finally settled by Chief [Spokane] Garry, who was a noted Indian at that time.

"During those days, the Indians became rather insulting and would come into cabins if there was no man around and (ask the womenfolk) for something to eat, tobacco, or matches. Of course, the settlers were frightened by them at first, but later became somewhat used to them. The women would stand no nonsense and always kept a rifle or pistol handy. I was afraid of them at first, (but) after awhile picked up enough of their jargon to talk with them and was able to understand [them].

"At the Purington ranch, we planted peach, pear and apple trees. In the Spring of 1873 we planted all kinds of seeds and also sweet potatoes, tobacco, peanuts and cotton. They all grew well. The wind blew a gale at times so we set out a wind break of locust trees.

"The winter of 1874-5 was the worst I ever spent. Cattle died by the thousands, for the snow was deep and the springs were frozen so badly that it was impossible for the cattle to drink. It was frightfully cold. When Winter broke, dead cattle were everywhere. Great pieces of ice came down the Snake River. Some of the flows were 40 feet high."

George tired of the monotony of ranch life and left for the big city in 1875. He went to Portland where he started on a succession of jobs that took him from Walla Walla to Moscow, Idaho, and Newport, Washington. Employment was readily available for anyone willing to work and George tried everything from being a waiter, a barber, a sewing machine salesman, and a druggist. He even took a turn at practicing medicine.

Nez Perce War

In 1877, he was in Colfax when word arrived of the Nez Perce uprising. George provided me with a written account of his experience:

"On June 15, word came that a group of the Nez Perce Indians under the leadership of Chief Joseph had begun hostilities against the white settlers in western Idaho Territory by killing in cold blood several of the settlers. On Sunday, the 17th day of June, I, as well as many others, were at a camp meeting at what was known as Chase's Mill, about 18 miles east of Colfax, when a man by the name of Joe Evans came into camp about 11 o'clock with his horse covered with sweat, and said: 'The Indians are coming down Union Flat, killing and burning everything in sight.' (Actually, no fighting occurred in Union Flat.)

"The meeting broke up without waiting for the benediction, and everyone started for home or for Colfax. When I arrived back in Colfax, I found the streets barricaded and great excitement. An old man by the name of D. S. Bowman was upon the stoop of the only store in town, and he was saying, 'Gentlemen, I have lived in Indian country all of my life, and I can say to all of you people that we should organize a company of volunteers. Then you will be recognized by the government.' We organized a company on the spot. We appointed officers (and) all signed the roster and were sworn in. Then we were all told to go out and get all the firearms we had or could borrow. When we returned, all we could muster was 22 rifles, shotguns, and pistols. My duty, with two others, was to stand guard at the south end of town on the hills where it was supposed that the Indians would come through.

"The next morning, I was ordered to reconnoiter and report. I went first to Three Forks, where Pullman is now situated, but there was no one within five miles. From there I went to Palouse City. There were very few families there, but the men from town and country were building a stockade. I stopped over there to help where I could. The next day, I went on to Moscow. Only a few people were there, but they were building a stockade with a big cellar inside for the women and children. It was built on a sloping side hill, and we could see the Indians passing along the foothills [on] the trail between Spokane and Lewiston. I stayed there for two days and had a chance to send a report to Colfax. Then I went to Lewiston, arriving there the same evening that General Howard arrived by boat from Portland with company of Georgia troops. They had no experience in fighting Indians, but a company was ordered out to go up Craig's Mountain to Grangeville and Mount Idaho and White Bird Canyon. They were sent down in regular formation and the Indians were up on the sides of the canyon, and as I was told by one of the company, they had no chance at all .

"After Joseph and his band eluded General Howard and fled over the Lolo Pass into Montana with the intention of reaching sanctuary in Canada, Sutherland and the members of his company of volunteers were ordered to watch for any stragglers who might circle back. We went to Mount Idaho, Grangeville, White Bird and many other places where we thought we might run into Indians, but we did not see any from that time on. The company was mustered out in August or September of the same year, 1877."

George's account concludes, "All the records [of the company's activities] . were destroyed in the big fire, so we have no record of our company's doings. After our enlistment, we had to furnish all of our equipment, horse, saddle, blankets and eat where we could. After 60 years, I think I am entitled to a badge of some kind as five of my company were receiving pensions (and I was not). I have saved Uncle Sam quite a sum of money by not applying for one. I did not need the money and I did not think that I was doing anything but my duty. We had to protect our homes under any circumstances."

George continued traveling over the Northwest investing in various business enterprises including mining, all with mediocre success. He eventually settled in Newport, Washington. There, he was a member of the City Council, served several terms as Mayor, was County Commissioner of Stevens and Pend Oreille Counties and president of a bank. He died in 1949 after a long and active life in which he realized his ambition of being a pioneer in the American West.

This essay is part of HistoryLink's People's History collection. People's Histories include personal memoirs and reminiscences, letters and other historical documents, interviews and oral histories, reprints from historical and current publications, original essays, commentary and interpretation, and expressions of personal opinion, many of which have been submitted by our visitors. They have not been verified by HistoryLink.org and do not necessarily represent its views.

Kaynaklar:

Spokane historian Jerome Peltier interviewed pioneer George Washington Sutherland (1854-1949) in the 1940s.


The Sutherland Archives makes collections available for research to the campus community and the public at large. Access to archival materials is with assistance of Archives staff only. Items in the Sutherland Archives do not circulate like other Library materials, but photocopies of documents or scanned images of photographs can be obtained by request, usually within 24 hours. Holdings information for materials in the Archives is available through the Fulton Library's online catalog. For more information regarding items contained in our collections or any other archives-related questions, please contact us.

The George Sutherland Archives focuses on building collections in the following areas:

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    • Professional or personal manuscripts, publications, and papers of current and former UVU administrators, faculty, staff, and notable alumni or area residents
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We focus on collecting the following types of items that fit within the stated collection scope:

Please note: We are not actively collecting rare books and other rare items that do not fit our scope.


Arkes, Hadley. The Return of George Sutherland: Restoring a Jurisprudence of Natural Rights. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Mason, Alpheus Thomas. "The Conservative World of Mr. Justice Sutherland, 1883-1910." Amerikan Siyaset Bilimi İncelemesi 32 (June 1938): 443-77.

Paschal, Joel Francis. Mr. Justice Sutherland, a Man Against the State. 1951. Reprint. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969.

Sutherland, George. Constitutional Power and World Affairs. 1919. Reprint. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1970.


SUTHERLAND Genealogy

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ÖNEMLİ GİZLİLİK BİLDİRİMİ VE SORUMLULUK REDDİ: ÖZEL BİLGİLERİ DAĞITIRKEN DİKKATLİ KULLANMA SORUMLULUĞUNUZ VARDIR. WIKITREE EN HASSAS BİLGİLERİ, AMA SADECE BÖLÜMDE BELİRTİLEN ÖLÇÜDE KORUR. KULLANIM ŞARTLARI AND GİZLİLİK POLİTİKASI.


SUTHERLAND, GEORGE

In 1883 Sutherland had completed one term at the University of Michigan Law School and qualified for the Michigan bar. That summer he returned to Utah and married Rosamund Lee. They had three children--Emma (born 1884), Philip (born 1886), and Edith (born 1888)--whom he supported by practicing law in Utah. In 1894 he helped to organize the Utah State Bar Association.

In 1896 Sutherland, a Republican, joined the first Utah House of Representatives. In 1899 he was admitted to the bar of the United States Supreme Court, and from 1900 to 1903 he served as Utah's only Representative in the U.S. House. He then served in the U.S. Senate from 1905 to 1916. During this period, he supported much progressive legislation, including a Utah law for an eight-hour day in the mining and smelting industries, as well as national statues such as the Pure Food and Drug Act.

Defeated for the Senate nomination in 1916, Sutherland went into private law practice, served as president of the American Bar Association, and became an advisor to Republican presidential hopeful Warren G. Harding in the campaign of 1920. Harding's election and the sudden resignation of a Supreme Court justice in 1922 paved the way for Sutherland's appointment to the bench.

Sutherland's Supreme Court record belied his earlier progressive stance. He penned such majority opinions as the landmark Adkins v. Children's Hospital, which outlawed a minimum wage for women. In the thirties, he opposed most of the New Deal legislation, and became the intellectual leader of the "Four Horsemen"--the four conservative justices consistently voting against President Franklin D. Roosevelt's programs. He retired from the Court in January 1938 and died on 18 July 1942. He retained the respect of his peers throughout his career and is rated by many historians as "near great" for his Supreme Court performance.

Disclaimer: Information on this site was converted from a hard cover book published by University of Utah Press in 1994.

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