1910'larda NAACP'nin yüzde kaçı Yahudiydi?

1910'larda NAACP'nin yüzde kaçı Yahudiydi?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Bununla birlikte, 1910'ların ortalarında, NAACP'nin birkaç önde gelen Yahudi üyesi vardı. Joel ve Arthur Spingarn kardeşler sırasıyla yönetim kurulu başkanı ve baş hukuk müşaviri olarak görev yaptı. Herbert Lehman yürütme kurulunda görev yaptı. Lillian Wald ve Walter Sachs kurulda görev yaptı. Jacob Schiff ve Paul Warburg, organizasyonun finansörleriydi. 1920'de Herbert Seligmann halkla ilişkiler müdürüydü ve Martha Greuning onun asistanıydı. NAACP kuruluşunda yer alan diğer önde gelen Yahudi figürler Jacob Billikopf, Julius Rosenwald, Haham Emil G. Hirsch ve Haham Stephen Wise idi. Marcus Garvey'in 1917'de NAACP karargahından Beyaz bir örgüt olduğundan şikayet etmesine şaşmamalı.

https://fanghornforest.wordpress.com/2015/11/18/national-association-for-the-advancement-of-kosher-people/


NAACP, bir Yahudi olmayan Mary White Ovington tarafından "1910'ların ortalarında" değil, 1910 civarında kuruldu. 1914'te "Renkli İnsanların Gelişimi Ulusal Birliği Nasıl Başladı" başlıklı kısa bir broşür yazdı. Bu hesaba göre, başlangıçta önemli bir figür, Ovington'un yakınlarından Henry Moscowitz olmasına rağmen, neredeyse tüm kurucu üyeler Yahudi olmayanlardı. Bir diğer önemli figür, önde gelen Güneyli bir aileden gelen, ancak çeşitli sosyal davalara son derece karışmış bir Rus Yahudisi olan karısı Anna Strunsky'den etkilenen William English Walling'di. örgütün orijinal görevlileri idi:

Moorfield Kat
William İngiliz Duvarı
John E. Milholland
Oswald Garnizon Villard
Frances Blascoer
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois

Bunların arasında sadece Blascoer Yahudi idi. Genel olarak örgütün ana gövdesi Storey, Milholland ve Villard gibi varlıklı Protestan kölelik karşıtlarından oluşuyordu ve çok sayıda Hıristiyan din adamı vardı. Walling'in karısı gibi Yahudi üyeler kesinlikle oradaydı, ancak azınlıktı, belki de en fazla %10 - %15'ini oluşturuyorlardı.


RAC ve Sivil Haklar Hareketi

Yahudilerin Amerika'da ırk ayrımcılığına ve ayrımcılığa karşı mücadeleye güçlü bir şekilde tepki vermesi şaşırtıcı değil. Ne de olsa tarihte hiçbir grup ırkçı nefretin bu kadar sık ​​kurbanı olmamıştır.

[ A. Vorspan ve D. Saperstein'dan alıntıdır, Sosyal Adaletin Yahudi Boyutları: Zamanımızın Zor Ahlaki Seçimleri (UAHC Press: 1998, 203ff) ]

Yahudilerin Amerika'da ırk ayrımcılığına ve ayrımcılığa karşı mücadeleye güçlü bir şekilde tepki vermesi şaşırtıcı değil. Ne de olsa tarihte hiçbir grup ırkçı nefretin bu kadar sık ​​kurbanı olmamıştır. Sonuç olarak, Amerikan toplumunun çok az kesimi, sivil haklar mücadelesine Yahudi toplumu kadar derinden yatırım yaptı. İnancın ve aydınlanmış kişisel çıkar taleplerinin bir sonucu olarak, Yahudiler, 50'li ve 50'li yılların eşitlik mücadelelerinde aktif bir rol oynayarak, eğitimde, toplu konaklamada ve oylamada ırk ayrımını sona erdirme mücadelesinin ön saflarında hizmet ettiler. 60'lar, güçlü bir siyah/Yahudi ittifakı sivil haklar hareketinin merkezindeydi.

  • 1964 Mississippi Yazı, Birliğin en inatla direnen eyaletinde yasal ayrımcılığın arkasını kırmak için düzenlendiğinde, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nin her yerinden gönüllü olan gençlerin yüzde 50'si Yahudiydi. Bu mücadelede, beyaz aşırılık yanlıları Philadelphia, Mississippi'de üç şehidi öldürdü. İkisi, Andrew Goodman ve Michael Schwerner, Yahudiydi, üçüncüsü James Earl Chaney, siyahtı.
  • Yahudiler, Ulusal Renkli İnsanların Gelişimi Derneği, Güney Hıristiyan Liderlik Konferansı ve Şiddetsiz Öğrenci Koordinasyon Komitesi gibi kuruluşlar tarafından toplanan fonların kurulmasına ve/veya önemli ölçüde katkıda bulunulmasına yardımcı oldular.
  • Uzun yıllar boyunca, Kivie Kaplan (Reform Yahudi hareketinin başkan yardımcısı) NAACP'nin ulusal başkanıydı Arnie Aronson ve Joe Rauh Jr. sırasıyla Sivil Haklar Liderlik Konferansı'nın (LCCR) sekreteri ve genel danışmanı olarak görev yaptı. Jack Greenberg, NAACP Yasal Savunma Fonu'nun genel müdürüydü. Bunlar, sivil haklar hareketinde kilit rol oynayan birçok Yahudi'den sadece birkaçıydı. Uygun bir şekilde, 1998'de Başkan Clinton, efsanevi A. Philip Randolph ve Roy Wilkins ile birlikte LCCR'yi kuran Amerikalı bir Yahudi lider olan Aronson'a Başkanlık Özgürlük Madalyası'nı sundu. Aronson, onlarca yıldır Yahudi ve siyah sivil haklar liderlerine, 30'dan fazla geniş kapsamlı medeni haklar yasasını geçirme stratejilerinin haritalandırılmasında liderlik etti.
  • 1910-1940 yılları arasında 2.000'den fazla okul ve 20 siyah kolej (Howard, Dillard ve Fisk Üniversiteleri dahil) tamamen veya kısmen Yahudi hayırsever Julius Rosenwald'ın katkılarıyla finanse edildi. Sözde "Rosenwald okulları"nın zirvesinde, güneyli Siyahların yaklaşık yüzde 40'ı bu kurumlardan birinde eğitim gördü.
  • Hahamlar, Martin Luther King Jr. ile birlikte Güney boyunca yürüdüler, burada bazıları dövüldü ve birçoğu hapse atıldı. Bunlar arasında öne çıkan biri, ırkçılığa karşı mücadelede King'in manevi ortağı olan Haham Abraham Joshua Heschel'di. URJ ve CCAR liderlerinin çoğu, halka açık yerlerde ırk ayrımcılığına karşı bir meydan okumadan sonra 1964'te St. Augustine, Florida'da Martin Luther King, Jr. ile birlikte tutuklandı.

Reform Hareketi ve Sivil Haklar
Yahudi siyasi gücü, ulusal ve yerel düzeyde dönüm noktası niteliğindeki medeni haklar yasalarının çıkarılmasına katkıda bulundu. Sivil haklar ve dini gruplar Amerika'nın vicdanını ırksal kötülüğe karşı harekete geçirdiğinde, en azından değişiklikler geldi. 1964 Sivil Haklar Yasası ve 1965 Oy Hakları Yasası, RAC'ın Washington DC'deki binasının konferans salonunda, Sivil Haklar Liderlik Konferansı (on yıllardır Merkezde barındırılan) himayesinde hazırlandı.

Yahudi Cemaati, oy verme, barınma ve istihdamda kadınlara, ırksal azınlıklara ve engelli kişilere karşı sürekli ayrımcılığı ele alan, ülke tarihindeki en geniş kapsamlı medeni haklar yasalarının bir puanın üzerinde hevesli destekçileri olarak devam etti.

Liderleri Yahudi cemaatini LCCR'nin yürütme komitelerinde ve NAACP'nin ulusal kurulunda temsil ettiği için Reform Hareketi 1990'lardan beri aranıyor. Haham David Saperstein şu anda NAACP yönetim kurulundaki tek Afrikalı-Amerikalı olmayan kişidir.


Sivil Haklar ve Arthur ve Sara Jo Kobacker Binası
30 yıl boyunca, Dini Eylem Merkezi, sivil haklar mevzuatına destek sağlamak için düzenli olarak bir araya gelen bir dizi önemli sivil haklara ve Yahudi örgütüne ev sahipliği yaptı. Aşağıda, Merkez'de hazırlanan ve/veya mevzuatı destekleyen koalisyonun Merkezin konferans odasında toplantılarını gerçekleştirdikleri bazı temel medeni haklar yasa tasarılarından bazı örnekler yer almaktadır:


Macaristan'daki Yahudilerin Tarihi - 1910'da Toplamın Yüzdesi Olarak Yahudi Nüfusu

N = Neolog çoğunluk n = Neolog azınlık Q = Statüko öncesi çoğunluk q = Statüko öncesi azınlık X = Ortodoks çoğunluk x = Ortodoks azınlık * = Chasidic hanedanı mevcut (bkz.). Kasaba ve köyde yalnızca Ortodoks cemaati varsa, bu işaretlenmez.

Kasaba veya köy 1941 ve 1944 yılları arasında SL = Slovakya, RO = Romanya, GE = Almanya, IT = İtalya, CR = Hırvatistan'a aitti. İşareti olmayan topluluklar Holokost sırasında Macar yönetimi altındaydı.

Macar isimlerinin telaffuzu tutarlıdır: s= sh, sz= s, c= cz = tz, cs= ch, zs= zh, gy= dy, ly= y, j= y.

Yahudi nüfusunun %5'i aştığı "rendezett tanácsú" veya "törvényhatósági jogú" (yani özerk) kasabaların listesi şunlardı:

  • Munkács (Mukachevo) %44.4 *,
  • Máramarossziget (Sighetu Marmaţiei) %37.4 *,
  • Ungvár (Uzhhorod) %31,4 *Xn, Bártfa (Bardejov SL) %30,4, Beregszász (Berehove) %30,2 *,
  • Sátoraljaújhely %28.7 *Xq,
  • Nagyvárad (Oradea) %23.6 Xn, Budapeşte %23.1 Nx, Nyitra (Nitra SL) %22.4 *,
  • Szilágysomlyó (Şimleu Silvaniei) %20,9, Bánffyhunyad (Huedin) %20,7, Szatmárnémeti (Satu Mare) %20,6 *Xq, Miskolc %20,0 *,
  • Dés (Dej) %18,9 *, Újpest, şimdi Budapeşte'nin bir parçası %18,4 N,
  • Trencsén (Trenčín SL) %16,7, Késmárk (Kežmarok SL) %16,6, Losonc (Lučenec) %16.5 Nx, Eperjes (Prešov SL) %16,4, Zsolna (Žilina SL) %16.0,
  • Nagykároly (Carei) %15,5, Baba %15,3 *, Kassa (Kösice) %15,2 *Nx,
  • Léva (Levice) %14,3 Q, Nagyszombat (Trnava SL) %14,0,
  • Kaposvár %13.9 N, Gyulafehérvár (Alba Iulia RO) %13.7, Kisszeben (Sabinov SL) %13.3, Poprád (Poprad SL) %13.0,
  • Nagykanizsa %12.7 N, Győr %12.6 Nx, Gyöngyös %12.6 Qx, Zalaegerszeg %12.4 N, Szepesváralja (Spišské Podhradie SL) %12.4,
  • Hátszeg (Hațeg RO) %11,8, Besztercebánya (Banská Bystrica SL) %11.7, Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca) %11.6 *Xn, Szamosújvár (Gherla) %11,3, Vac %11.2,
  • Beszterce (Bistriţa) %10,9, Nagybánya (Baia Mare) %10,9, Szászrégen (Reghin) %10,8 *, Komárom %10,7 Nx, Pozsony (Bratislava SL, Pressburg) %10,5, Nyíregyháza %10,2 Qx, %10,1 Szombathely Arad RO) %10,0, Rimaszombat (Rimavská Sobota) %10,0,
  • Baja %9,9 N, Eger %9,5 *qx, Érsekújvár (Nové Zámky) %9.5 Xn, Lőcse (Levoča SL) %9.5, Lugos (Lugoj RO) %9.5, Temesvár (Timișoara RO) %9,3, Dicsőszentmárton (Târnăveni RO) (%9,2), Debrecen %9,2 Deva RO) %9.1,
  • Marosvásárhely (Târgu Mureş) %8,7 Xq, Rózsahegy (Ružomberok SL) %8,7, Veszprém %8,6 N, Székesfehérvár %8.3 Nx, Pécs %8,1 N,
  • Fogaras (Făgăraş RO) %7,8, Rozsnyó (Rožňava) %7,5 N, Jolsva (Jelšava) %7,5, Bazin (Pezinok SL) %7,5, Szolnok %7,2 N,
  • Újvidék (Novi Sad) %6,9 N, Zólyom (Zvolen SL) %6,9, Sopron (Ödenburg) %6,7 nx, Nagyrőce (Revúca SL) %6,7, Körmöcbánya (Kremnica SL) %6,6, Csíkszereda (Miercurea %5-Ciuc) Kolozs (Cojocna) %6.5, Igló (Spišská Nová Ves SL) %6.3, Felsőbánya (Baia Sprie) %6.1, Szepesbéla (Spišská Belá SL) %6.1, Hajdúnánás %6.0,
  • Szeged %5,8 N, Makó %5,5 Xn, Kismarton (Eisenstadt GE) %5,5, Szekszárd %5,6 N, Karánsebes (Caransebeş RO) %5,2, Zilah (Zalău) %5,1, Esztergom %5,1 N.

Birkaç kasabada, Yahudilerin sayısı bin kişiyi aştı, ancak yerel nüfustaki oranları %5,0'dan azdı. Bu kasabalar, 3539 Yahudi sakini (%3,7) ile Szabadka (Subotica) Nx, Kecskemét 2022 (%3,0), Békéscsaba 1970 (%4,6), Fiume (Rijeka IT) 1696 (%3,4), Hódmezővásárhely 1381 (%2,2), Zenta (Senta) * 1328 (%4,5), Nagybecskerek (Зрењанин, Zrenjanin) 1232 (%4,7), Cegléd 1121 (%3,3), Karcag 1077 (%4,7), Kiskunfélegyháza 1051 (%3,0), Jászberény ise 1017 (%3,4) idi. ).

1910'da önemli ölçüde Yahudi varlığına sahip diğer kasabalar ve köyler şunları içeriyordu:

  • Alsókismartonhegy (şimdi Eisenstadt GE'nin bir parçası) %79,3, Tiszakarácsonyfa (Crăciuneşti) %52.8,
  • Faluszlatina (Solotvyno) %47,6, Sztropkó (Stropkov SL) %44,1 *, Dunaszerdahely (Dunajská Streda) %43.6 *, Alsóverecke (Нижні Ворота, Nyzhni Vorota) %41,3,
  • Oroszvég (Rosvehove, şimdi Mukachevo'nun bir parçası) %39.5, Romoly (Romuli) %39.2, Visóoroszi (Ruscova) %37.5,
  • Homonna (Humenné SL) %34.8, Tiszaújlak (Вилок, Vylok) %34,8, Nagyberezna (Великий Березний, Velyky Berezny) %34,5, Mezőlaborc (Medzilaborce SL) %34,3,
  • Nagykapos (Veľké Kapušany) %33.8, Beregkövesd (Кам'янське, Kamjans'ke) %33,5, Hunfalva (Huncovce SL) %33,2 *,
  • Felsővisó (Vişeu de Sus) %32,9, Szaplonca (Săpânţa) %32,6 *, Galánta (Galanta) %32.4, Nagymihály (Michalovce) %32.3, Majdanka (Maydan) %31.8,
  • Halmi (Halmeu) %30,7, Kisvárda %30,3, Liptószentmiklós (Liptovský Mikuláš SL) %30,3, Nagytapolcsány (Topoľčany SL) %30,2, Rozália (Rozavlea) %30,1,
  • Zboró (Zborov SL) %29,7, Ósándorfalva (Олександрівка, Oleksandrivka) %29,7,
  • Gálszécs (Sečovce SL) %28,8, Nagyszőlős (Vynohradiv) %28,6, Bacsó (Чабанівка, Chabanivka) %28,5, Bustyaháza (Буштинo, Bushtyno) %28,2, Kökényes (Терново, %28,0, Ternovo)
  • Lakompak (Lackenbach GE) %27,8, Varannó (Vranov nad Topľou SL) %27.4,
  • Benedeki (Бенедиківці, Benedykivci) %26,9, Majszin (Moisei) %26,8, Vágújhely (Nové Mesto nad Váhom SL) %26,4, Szolyva (Svaliava) %26,2, Hidalmás (Hida) %26,0,
  • Szerednye (Serednje, Середнє) %25,8, Dragomérfalva (Dragomireşti) %25,7, Nagysomkút (Şomcuta Mare) %25,4, Gánya (Ганичі, Ganychi) %25,4, Vajnág (Вонігово, %25,Vonihovo, %25.
  • Ilosva (Irshava) %24,9, Magyarlápos (Târgu Lăpuş) %24,6, Nagykirva (Криве, Kryve) %24,6, Sasvár (Šaštín-Stráže SL) %24,5, Szepesófalu (Spišská Stará Ves SL) %24,4 (Sozobrance) %24,4 (Sozobrance) , Szabadszállás %24,3, Kisdobrony (Мала Добронь, Mala Dobron') %24,2, Kabolapatak (Valea Hotarului) %24,2, Borsa (Borşa) %24,2,
  • Tolcsva %23,5 *, Németvágás (Poruba pod Vihorlatom SL) %23,3, Polena (Поляна, Poljana) %23,2, Huszt (Khust) %23,0 *,
  • Mezőkaszony (Косонь, Koson') %22.9, Retteg (Reteag) %22.9, Nagyilonda (Ileanda) %22.7 Tornalja (Tornaľa SL) %22.5, Nyitrazsámbokrét (Žabokreky nad Nitroе SL) %22.4 (Таврес), %22.4, Taraрck Uglya (Uglya, Uglja) %22,0,
  • Tokaj %21.9, Felsőapsa (Верхнє Водяне, Verhnje Vodjane) %21.9, Bilke (Білки, Bilky) %21.8, Alőr (Urişor) %21.8, Alsókubin (Dolný Kubín SL) %21,6, Margitta (5%ілки, Bilky) %21.5 ) %21,5, Puhó (Púchov SL) %21,1, Királyhelmec (Kráľovský Chlmec) %21,0, Petrova (Petrova) %21,0, Szeklence (Сокирниця, Sokyrnycja) %21,0,
  • Héthárs (Lipany SL) %20,7, Balassagyarmat %20,6, Vásárosnamény %20,5, Kabold (Kobersdorf GE) %20,2, Nyírmada %20,2, Nagymagyar (Zlaté Klasy) %20,2, Girált (Giraltovce SL) %20,0,
  • Nagybiccse (Bytča SL) %19,8, Alsóróna (Rona de Jos) %19,8, Ökörmező (Mizhhir'ya) %19,7, Nagybocskó (Velykyy Bychkiv) %19,5, Mád %19,4, Bodrogkeresztúr %19,3 *, Érmihályfalva (Valea lui Mihai) %19,2, Havasmező (Poienile de sub Munte) %19,2, Beregkisfalud (Сільце, Sil'ce) %19,1, Bethlen (Beclean) %19,0, Úrmező (Руське Поле, Rus'ke Pole) , Mátészalka %19,0, Abaújszántó %19,0,
  • Izaszacsal (Săcel) %18,9, Nyírbátor %18,8, Irhóc (Вілхівці, Vilkhivci) %18,8, Sopronkeresztúr (Deutschkreutz GE) %18,6 *, Putnok %18.1, Dombó (Dubove) %18.1,
  • Bonyhád %17,8 Xn, Bözödújfalu (Bezidu Nou) %17,7, Felsővízköz (Svidník SL) %17,7, Ilonca (Ільниця, Il'nycja) %17,7, Bán (Bánovce nad Bebravou SL) %17,6 (Sziks) %17,6 (Sziks) %17,2, Kissalló (şimdi Tekovské Lužianky'nin bir parçası) %17,2, Csenger %17.2,
  • Budfalva (Budeşti, Bistriţa-Năsăud) %16,9, Magyarnemegye (Nimigea de Jos) %16,9, Lemes (Lemešany SL) %16,8, Naszód (Năsăud) %16,7 *, Volóc (Воловець, Volovec'а, %16,2, Lypcha) %16.1,
  • Zsibó (Jibou) %15,9, Ipolyság (Šahy) %15,7, Encs %15,7, Szinérváralja (Seini) %15,6,
  • Balatonboglár %15,4 N, Tab %15,3, Barcánfalva (Bârsana) %15,2, Kovácsrét (Кушниця, Kusnycja %15.1, Boldogasszony (Frauenkirchen GE) %15,1, Szerencs %15.1, Radnótzilfája (Rege'nin %15'i), Cehu Silvaniei) %15,0,
  • Szenice (Senica SL) %14,9, Alsóhidegpatak (Нижний Студенї, Nyzhny Studeni) %14,9, Técső (Tiachiv) %14,8 *, Jód (Ieud) %14,8, Turócszentmárton (Martin SL) %14,7 (Ölyvkhiv)іkavі) %14,7, Alsóvisó (Viseu de Jos) %14,6,
  • Olaszliszka %14,4 *, Alsószinevér (Sinevir) %14,3, Kövesliget (Драгово, Drahovo) %14,3, Felsőszelistye (Săliştea de Sus) %14,2, Alsólendva (Lendava) %14,0, Borgóprund (Prundu Bârgăului) %14,0,
  • Tapolca %13.8 N, Keszthely %13.8 N, Rohod %13.8, Galgóc (Hlohovec SL) %13.7, Hodász %13.6, Nagymarton (Mattersdorf GE) %13.5 *, Avasújfalu (Certeze) %13.5,
  • Fehérgyarmat %13.4, Alsóapsa (Нижня Апша, Nyzhnja Apsha) %13.4, Királyháza (Королеве, Koroleve) %13.4, Aszód %13.3 N, Tasnád (Tăşnad) %13.3,
  • Levelek %12.9, Ólubló (Stará Ľubovňa SL) %12.8, Jánosháza %12.7, Nyírbogát %12.7, Élesd (Aleşd) %12.7, Vaján (Vojany) %12.6, Vitka (şimdi Vásárosnamény'nin bir parçası) %12.5,
  • Jármi %12,4, Rahó (Rakhiv) %12,3, Mándok %12,3, Vágbeszterce (Považská Bystrica SL) %12,3, Szamossályi %12.2, Nyírtass %12.2 *, Csaroda %12.1, Gergelyi %12.1, Berettyóújfalu %12.1, Nyírmeggyes %12.0,
  • Sajószentpéter %11.9, Csáktornya (Čakovec) %11.9 N, Gemzse %11.9, Nyírbakta %11.8, Aranyosmarót (Zlaté Moravce SL) %11.8, Jóka (Jelka) %11.7, Nagyatád %11.6 N, Szentgotthárd %11.6 N, Siófo , Pöstyén (Piešťany SL) %11,5,
  • Nagykálló %11,3 *, Beled %11.3, İlk %11.3, Vaja %11.3, Gernyés (Копашньово, Kopashn'ovo) %11.3, Nagysurány (Şurany) %11.2, Vilmány %11.2, Erdőbénye %11.1, Gyömöre %11.1, Nagysimonyi %11.0, Nyírjákó , Sarospatak %11.0
  • Zalaszentgrót %10,9 N, Dolha (Довге, Dovhe) %10,8, Nyírcsászári %10,8, Párkány (Štúrovo) %10,7 N, Szécsény %10,7, Iza (Iza) %10,7, Kemecse %10,6, Nagymegyer (Veľk) %10,6 (Čaňa) %10,6, Avasújváros (Oraşu Nou) %10,5,
  • Barcs %10,3 K, Szenc (Senec) %10,3, Lövőpetri %10,2, Szinna (Snina SL) %10,1, Avasfelsőfalu (Negrești-Oaș) %10,1, Szepsi (Moldava nad Bodvou) %10,0, Magosliget %10,0, Petneháza %10,0
  • Tiszalök %9,9, Kisvarsány %9,9, Újfehértó %9,8 *, Hőgyész %9,7, Csorna %9,7, Hidasnémeti %9,7, Dombóvár %9,6, Demecser %9,6, Maroshévíz (Toplița) %9,6, Holics (Holíč SL) %9,6, Nagypalád (Велика Пала Garдbol', Velyka, %9,6, Paladka %, Ramocsaháza %9.6, Szabolcsbáka %9.5, Mezőcsát %9.5, Olcsva %9.5, Erzsébetfalva (şimdi Budapeşte'nin bir parçası) %9.5,
  • Ónod %9.3, Vámosmikola %9.2, Büdszentmihály (şimdi Tiszavasvári'nin bir parçası) %9.1, Gyüre %9.1, Hejőcsaba %9.1, Aranyosmeggyes (Medieșu Aurit) %9.1, Privigye (Prievidza SL) %9.1, Pásztó %9.1, Nyár (Nyár) ) %9.0, Porcsalma %9.0,
  • Tarcal %8,9, Illava (Ilava SL) %8,9, Ond %8,9, Körmend %8,8 N, Ópályi %8,8, Egeres (Aghireșu) %8,7, Verebély (Vráble) %8,6, Nagygéc %8,6, Veszprém %8,6, Szilágypér (Pir) ) %8,6, Céke (Cejkov) %8,6, Zalalövő %8.5, Muraszombat (Murska Sobota) %8.5 N, Sásd %8.5, Gyulaháza %8.5, Szendrő %8.5,
  • Cégénydányád %8.4, Perecseny (Перечин, Perechyn), %8.4, Vágsellye (Saľa) %8.4, Kersemjén %8.4, Szurduk (Surduc) %8.4, Sárvár %8.3 Xn, Marcali %8.3 N, Edelény %8.3, Szigetvár %8.3, Szigetvár Fülesd %8.3, Tiszaadony %8.3, Kraszna (Crasna) %8.3, Celldömölk %8.3, Vármező (Buciumi) %8.2, Visk (Вишковo, Vyshkovo) %8,1, Diszel %8,1, Feled (Jesenské SL) %8,1, Fülek (Fiľak) ) %8.0, Pak %8.0,
  • Tata %7,9 N, Ruttka (Vrútky SL) %7,9, Nyírbogdány %7,9, Oszlány (Oslany SL)) %7,8, Boldogkőváralja %7,8, Kisbér %7,8, Tállya %7,7, Bercel %7,7, Gönc %7,7, Csaca (Čadca SL) ) %7,7, Nagyecsed %7,6 *, Farkasrév (Vadu Izei) %7,6, Eszék (Osijek CR) %7,5, Nyíracsád %7,5, Nyírkarász %7,5, Széphalom %7,5,
  • Salgótarján %7.4, Balatonfüred %7.4, Gégény %7.4, Tiszaszentmárton %7.4, Szirák %7.3, Csabrendek %7.3, Dámóc %7.3, Szatmárcseke %7.3, Hatvan %7.2 N, Sárbogárd %7.2, Telcs (Telciu) %7.2 %, Moson (Wieselburg, şimdi Mosonmagyaróvár'ın bir parçası) %7.1 Q, Városszalónak (Stadtschlaining GE) %7.1, Álmosd %7.1, Apc %7.0, Óradna (Rodna) %7.0, Liptóújvár (Liptovský Hrádok (Csáki SL)) %7.0 Gârbou) %7.0, Nyírmihálydi %7.0, Tiszadada %7.0,
  • Fábiánháza %6,9, Gulács %6,9, Kővágóörs %6,8, Vajszló %6,8, Tiszafüred %6,8, Pacsa %6,8 N, Belovár (Bjelovar CR) %6,8, Bercsényifalva (Dубриничі, Dubrynychi) (Apa Borshida) %6,8 (Apa Borhidahida) (Borsec) %6.7, Alsószopor (Supuru de Jos) %6.6, Ricse %6.6, Nagytétény (şimdi Budapeşte'nin bir parçası) %6.5, Dombrád %6.5,
  • Podolin (Podolínec SL) %6.4, Liptótepla (Liptovská Teplá SL)) %6.4, Talaborfalu (Теребля, Tereblja %6.4, Rohonc (Rechnitz GE) %6.3, Malacka (Malacky SL) %6.3, Földes %6.3, Kapolcs %6.3, Rajka %6.3, Pécel %6.2 Q, Vámospércs %6.2, Aknasugatag (Ocna Şugatag) %6.1, Nagydobrony (Велика Добронь, Velyka Dobron') %6.0, Sümeg %6.0,
  • Kapuvár %5,9, Harkány %5,9, Rákosszentmihály (şimdi Budapeşte'nin bir parçası) %5,9, Nyírlugos %5,8, Pécsvárad %5,8, Kaba %5,8, Tinnye %5,8, Salánk (Шаланки, Shalanky) %5,8, Hajdúsámson %5,7, Tét %5,7 , Alistál (Dolný Štál) %5,7, Mezőkeresztes %5,7, Mohács %5,6 Kuzey, Tamási %5,6 Kuzey, Kapronca (Koprivnica CR) %5,6, Pincehely %5,6, Kispest (şimdi Budapeşte'nin bir parçası) %5,5 Kuzey, Vasvár %5,5 K , Pozsega (Požega CR) %5,5, Bród (Slavonski Brod CR) %5,5, Harsány %5,5,
  • Zágráb (Zagreb CR) %5,4, Tarpa %5,2, Tiszabő %5,4, Szakoly %5,4, Derecske %5,3, Kistarcsa %5,3, Vadna %5,3, Verpelét %5,3, Villány %5,3, Kunmadaras %5,2, Kalocsa %5,1 N, Sziszek (Sisak CR) %5,0, Enying %5,0, Piliscsaba %5,0, Pócspetri %5,0, Monor %5,0.

Özerk kasabalar da dahil olmak üzere Yahudi nüfusunun %4'e ulaştığı ilçeler,

  • Máramaros %18.4, Bereg %14.2, Ugocsa %12.9, Ung %10.9,
  • Zemplén %9,6, Szabolcs %7,9, Szatmár %7,4, Sáros %7,1, Abaúj-Torna %7,1,
  • Bihar %6,4, Hajdú %6,0, Pozsony %5,8, Beszterce-Naszód %5,7, Nyitra %5,0, Szolnok-Dobóka %5,1,
  • Szilágy %4.3, Kolozs %4.3, Szepes %4.3.

Yahudi, nüfus, yüzde ve/veya toplam kelimelerini içeren ünlü alıntılar :

&ldquo Don: Neden kapalılar? Hepsi kapalı, her biri.
Tefeci: Elbette öyleler. Yom Kippur.
Don: Ne?
Tefeci: Yom Kippur, bir Yahudi tatil.
Don: Öyle mi? Peki ya Kelly'nin 146'ları ve Gallagher'ın 146'ları?
Tefeci: Onlar da kapandı. Bir anlaşmamız var. Yom Kippur'da kapalı kalıyorlar ve biz Aziz Patrick'te açmıyoruz. &rdquo
&mdashBilly Wilder (d. 1906)

&ldquo Ne kadar kefaret yeterlidir? Bombalamaya en azından kısmi ödeme olarak izin verilmelidir: Müttefik hava saldırısının yarattığı ahlaki sorundan endişe duyan gençlerimiz, en azından Alman sivili olsaydı ortaya çıkacak olan ahlaki sorunu göz önünde bulundurmalıdır. nüfus hiç acı çekmemişti. &rdquo
&mdashClive James (d. 1939)

&ldquo Aslında, işim meşru olsaydı, önemli miktarda yüzde vücudumun amortismanı için.
Tefekkür sahibi ve kitap düşkünü kimseler, diğerlerinden daha ihtiyatlı olmalıdırlar, çünkü onlar gerçek meseleler hakkında çekişmezler ve ihtilaflarını herhangi bir tanık veya yargıçla tespit edemezler. Ama barışa, yani Hakikate gittikleri sürece, hangi yoldan olursa olsun. &rdquo
&mdashJohn Donne (c. 1572�)

&ldquo Bilgisayarlar hızlı, doğru hesaplamada ve büyük bilgi yığınlarını depolamada iyidir. Öte yandan beyin, bir sayı kırıcı kadar verimli değildir ve hafızası genellikle oldukça yanıltıcıdır, tasarımında temel bir yanlışlık vardır. Beynin güçlü yanı esnekliğidir. Akıllıca tahminlerde bulunmak ve olayları kavramakta emsalsizdir. Toplam kendisine sunulan bilginin anlamı. &rdquo
&mdashJeremy Campbell (d. 1931)


Tarih

Acemi grup, sınırlı kaynaklarla bir süre mücadele etti ve kapsamını ve etkinliğini artırmak için üyeliğini genişletmeye karar verdi. Destek talepleri, günün 60'tan fazla önde gelen Amerikalısına gitti ve Başkan Abraham Lincoln'ün doğumunun 100. yıldönümü ile aynı zamana denk gelmesi amaçlanan 12 Şubat 1909 için bir toplantı tarihi belirlendi. Toplantı üç ay sonraya kadar gerçekleşmese de, bu tarih genellikle örgütün kuruluş tarihi olarak anılır.

30 Mayıs 1909, Niagara Hareketi konferansı, New York City'deki Henry Street Settlement House'da gerçekleşti ve burada 40'tan fazla kişiden oluşan bir organizasyon ortaya çıktı. Ulusal Zenci Komitesi. Du Bois, etkinliğin düzenlenmesinde kilit rol oynadı ve duruşmalara başkanlık etti. Toplantıya ayrıca, NAACP'nin kurucu ortağı olan Afrikalı-Amerikalı gazeteci ve linç karşıtı haçlı Ida B. Wells-Barnett de katıldı. Örgüt ikinci konferansını Mayıs 1910'da düzenledi ve üyelerin Ulusal Renkli İnsanların Gelişimi Derneği adını seçtiler. İsim resmi olarak 30 Mayıs'ta kabul edildi ve NAACP bir yıl sonra, 1911'de kuruldu. Derneğin tüzüğü misyonunu tanımladı:

DuBois, organizasyonda önemli bir rol oynamaya devam etti ve derneğin dergisinin editörlüğünü yaptı. Kriz, 30.000'in üzerinde bir tirajı vardı.

Yahudi topluluğu, NAACP'nin kurulmasına ve finansmanının devam etmesine büyük ölçüde katkıda bulundu. Yahudi tarihçi Howard Sachar kitabında yazıyor Amerika'daki Yahudilerin Tarihi "1914'te Columbia Üniversitesi'nden Fahri Profesör Joel Spingarn, NAACP'nin başkanı oldu ve Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf ve Haham Stephen Wise gibi Yahudi liderleri yönetim kuruluna aldı." [1] (http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history_community/Modern/Overview_The_Story_19481980/America/PWPolitics/CivilRights.htm)

Jim Crow'la Dövüşmek

1914'e gelindiğinde, grubun 6.000 üyesi ve 50 şubesi vardı ve Afrikalı-Amerikalıların I. Dünya Savaşı'nda subay olarak hizmet etme hakkının kazanılmasında etkili oldu. Ertesi yıl NAACP, D.W.'ye karşı ülke çapında bir protesto düzenledi. Griffith'in sessiz filmi Bir Ulusun Doğuşu, Ku Klux Klan'ı büyüleyen bir film.

NAACP, tarihinin başlarında ırk ayrımcılığına ve diğer medeni hakların reddedilmesine yönelik davalarda öncü bir rol oynamaya başladı. Oklahoma'nın birçok siyah vatandaşı haklarından mahrum bırakan ayrımcı "dede" kuralına meydan okumada önemli bir rol oynadı. Amerika Birleşik Devletleri Yüksek Mahkemesini karar vermeye ikna etti Buchanan - Warley 1917'de eyaletler, Afrikalı-Amerikalıları resmi olarak ayrı yerleşim bölgelerine ayıramaz.

1916'da, NAACP henüz yedi yaşındayken, başkan Joel Spingarn, James Weldon Johnson'ı saha sekreteri olarak hizmet etmeye davet etti. Johnson, Venezuela'nın eski bir ABD konsolosu ve tanınmış bir bilim adamı ve köşe yazarıydı. Dört yıl içinde Johnson, NAACP'nin üyeliğini 9.000'den neredeyse 90.000'e çıkarmada etkili oldu. 1920'de Johnson örgütün başına seçildi. Liderliği altında önümüzdeki on yıl boyunca, NAACP lobicilik ve dava çabalarını artıracak ve "Amerikan Zencileri" için eşit haklar ve eşit koruma savunuculuğuyla uluslararası alanda tanınacak.

NAACP, Birinci ve İkinci Dünya Savaşları arasındaki enerjisinin çoğunu Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'ndeki siyahların linç edilmesine karşı savaşmaya adadı. Örgüt, Walter F. White'ı Ekim 1919'da Phillips County, Arkansas'a, bir şerif yardımcısının bir sendikaya saldırısının ardından iki yüzden fazla siyah kiracı çiftçinin gezici beyaz kanunsuzlar ve federal birlikler tarafından öldürüldüğü Elaine Race Riot'u araştırmak üzere gönderdi. Ortakçıların toplantısı bir beyaz adamı öldürdü. NAACP, dayak ve elektrik çarpması yoluyla elde edilen ifadelere dayanarak bir ay sonra ölüm cezasına çarptırılan on iki adam için temyiz başvurusunda bulundu ve Moore v. Dempsey davasında çığır açan bir Yüksek Mahkeme kararı aldı. Gelecek yıllarda eyaletlerin ceza adaleti sistemleri.

NAACP ayrıca on yıldan fazla bir süreyi linç etmeyi yasaklayan federal yasalar aramak için harcadı. Örgüt, her bir öfkeyi işaretlemek için düzenli olarak New York'taki ofislerinin penceresinden "Dün Bir Adam Linç Edildi" yazan bir siyah bayrak sergiledi.

NAACP, John Johnston Parker'ın siyahlara oy kullanma hakkının reddine verdiği destek ve işçi karşıtı kararlarına dayanarak Yüksek Mahkemeye aday gösterilmesini önlemek için Amerikan Çalışma Federasyonu ile ittifak halinde başarılı mücadeleye öncülük etti. NAACP, bu davaların kontrolü ve izlenecek strateji konusunda Komünist Parti ve Uluslararası İşçi Savunması ile olan ölümcül savaşların çoğunu kaybetmesine rağmen, Scottsboro Boys için destek örgütledi. Örgüt ayrıca Güney'deki "beyaz birincil" sisteme meydan okumak için dava açtı.

Irk ayrımının kaldırılması

NAACP'nin Charles Hamilton Houston ve Thurgood Marshall tarafından yönetilen hukuk departmanı, Yüksek Mahkeme'nin Plessy v. Ferguson'daki kararıyla ilan edilen ayrı ama eşit doktrini tersine çevirmek için birkaç on yıl süren bir kampanya yürüttü. Devlet meslek okullarında ayrımcılığa karşı çıkarak, ardından kolej düzeyinde Jim Crow'a saldırarak başlayan kampanya, Brown v. Eğitim Kurulu davasında oybirliğiyle alınan ve ilkokulların devlet destekli ayrımcılığının anayasaya aykırı olduğuna karar veren oybirliğiyle alınan bir Yüksek Mahkeme kararıyla sonuçlandı.

Bu zaferle desteklenen NAACP, Güney'de ırk ayrımcılığının tamamen kaldırılması için bastırdı. 5 Aralık 1955'ten başlayarak, NAACP aktivistleri, E.D. Yerel başkanı Nixon ve bölümün Sekreteri olarak görev yapan Rosa Parks, sürücülerin üçte ikisi siyahken şehrin otobüslerinde ayrımcılığı protesto etmek için Alabama, Montgomery'de bir otobüs boykotunun düzenlenmesine yardım etti. Boykot 381 gün sürdü.

Alabama Eyaleti, NAACP'nin, üyelerinin bir listesini ifşa etmeyi reddetmesi nedeniyle, kovulacakları veya faaliyetleri nedeniyle şiddetli misilleme ile karşı karşıya kalacakları korkusuyla sınırları içinde faaliyet göstermesini etkin bir şekilde yasaklayarak yanıt verdi. Yüksek Mahkeme nihayetinde NAACP - Alabama, Template:Ussc davasındaki kararı bozmuş olsa da, NAACP o yıllarda Sivil Haklar Hareketi içindeki liderlik rolünü Güney Hristiyan Liderlik Konferansı ve Şiddetsiz Öğrenci Koordinasyon Komitesi gibi doğrudan doğruya dayalı örgütlere kaptırdı. Afrikalı-Amerikalıların haklarını ilerletmek için dava ve mevzuat yerine eylem ve kitle seferberliği. O zamanki başkanı Roy Wilkins, hareket içindeki strateji ve prestij konularında Martin Luther King, Jr. ve diğer sivil haklar liderleriyle defalarca çatıştı.

Aynı zamanda, NAACP, Yüksek Mahkemenin Brown'daki kararını, ülke genelinde okulların ve kamu tesislerinin ırk ayrımcılığının kaldırılması için baskı yapmak için kullandı. Arkansas eyalet bölümünün başkanı Daisy Bates, Little Rock Nine'ın Little Rock, Arkansas'taki devlet okullarını entegre etme kampanyasına öncülük etti.

1960'ların ortalarında, NAACP, sivil haklar mevzuatı için baskı yaparak Sivil Haklar Hareketi'ndeki üstünlüğünün bir kısmını yeniden kazanmıştı. İş ve Özgürlük için Washington Yürüyüşü 28 Ağustos 1963'te gerçekleşti. Kongre, 1964'te istihdam, eğitim ve kamuya açık yerlerde ırk ayrımcılığını sona erdirmeyi amaçlayan bir sivil haklar yasasını kabul etti ve bunu 1965'te oy hakları yasası izledi.

Kivie Kaplan 1975'te öldükten sonra, bir avukat ve din adamı olan Benjamin Hooks, 1977'de NAACP'nin genel müdürü seçildi.

1990'lar: Kriz ve restore edilmiş güç

1990'larda, NAACP borca ​​girdi ve önde gelen iki yetkilinin görevden alınması, derin bir kriz içindeki bir örgütün resmine daha da eklendi.

1993'te NAACP'nin Yönetim Kurulu, İcra Sekreteri pozisyonunu doldurmak için Peder Jesse Jackson yerine Peder Benjamin Chavis'i dar bir şekilde seçti. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that hired him, accused of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit. [2] (http://static.highbeam.com/n/newyorkamsterdamnews/october081994/betrayalthecaseagainstbenchavis)

Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty.

However, in the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. presidential elections. 10.5 million African Americans cast their ballots in the election, one million more than four years before, and the NAACP's effort was credited by observers as playing a significant role in handing Democrat Al Gore several states where the election was close, such as Pennsylvania and Michigan.

Zaman çizelgesi

1909 to 1949

1909: On February 12, the National Negro Committee was formed. Founders included Ida Wells-Barnett, W.E.B. DuBois, Henry Moscowitz, Mary White Ovington, Oswald Garrison Villiard, William English Walling.

1910: The NAACP began court fights with the Pink Franklin case. It involved a black farmhand, who killed a policeman in self-defense when the officer broke into his home at 3 a.m. to arrest him on a civil charge.

1913: The NAACP protested President Woodrow Wilson's official introduction of segregation to the federal government.

1914: Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise.

1915: The NAACP organizes a nationwide protest against D.W. Griffith's racially inflammatory and bigoted silent film, Bir Ulusun Doğuşu.

1917: İçinde Buchanan v. Warley, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states can not restrict and officially segregate African Americans into residential districts. Also, the NAACP won a battle to enable African-Americans to be commissioned as officers in World War I. Six hundred officers were commissioned, and 700,000 black men registered for the draft.

1918: After pressure by the NAACP, President Woodrow Wilson made a public statement against lynching.

1919: The NAACP sends Walter F. White to Arkansas to investigate the murder of several hundred black tenant farmers in October. The NAACP organizes the appeals on behalf of more than a hundred African-American defendants convicted in mob-dominated judicial proceedings the following month.

1920: To ensure that everyone, especially the Ku Klux Klan, knew the NAACP would not be intimidated, the annual conference was held in Atlanta, considered one of the most active areas of the Klan.

1922: The NAACP placed large ads in major newspapers to present the facts about lynching.

1930: The first of successful protests by the NAACP against Supreme Court justice nominees is begun against John Parker, who favored laws that discriminated against African-Americans.

1935: NAACP lawyers Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall won a legal fight to admit a black student to the University of Maryland Law School.

1939: After the Daughters of the American Revolution barred acclaimed contralto Marian Anderson from performing at their Constitution Hall, the NAACP moved her concert to the Lincoln Memorial, where more than 75,000 people attended.

1941: During World War II, the NAACP took part in the effort to ensure that President Franklin Roosevelt would order a nondiscrimination policy in war-related industries and federal employment.

1950 to 1990

1954: After years of fighting segregation in public schools, under the leadership of special counsel Thurgood Marshall, the NAACP won Brown v. Eğitim Kurulu. The historic U.S. Supreme Court decision barred school segregation.

1955: NAACP member and volunteer Rosa Parks is arrested and fined for refusing to give up her seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama. This action became a catalyst for the largest grassroots civil rights movement in the U.S. It was spearheaded through the collective efforts of the NAACP, Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and other black organizations.

1957: LDF spun off as a separate organization.

1960: In Greensboro, North Carolina, members of the NAACP Youth Council started a series of nonviolent sit-ins at segregated lunch counters. These protests eventually led to more than 60 stores officially desegregating their counters.

1963: After one of his many successful mass rallies for civil rights, the NAACP's first field director in Mississippi, Medgar Evers, is assassinated in front of his home in Jackson, Mississippi.

1963: The NAACP pushed for passage of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act.

1964: The U.S. Supreme Court ended the eight-year effort of Alabama officials to ban NAACP activities.

1965: Amidst threats of violence and efforts of state and local governments, the NAACP registered more than 80,000 voters in the South.

1979: The NAACP initiates the first bill ever signed by a governor that allows voter registration in high schools. Soon after, twenty-four states followed suit.

1981: The NAACP led the effort to extend the Voting Rights Act for another twenty-five years. To cultivate economic empowerment, the NAACP established the Fair Share Program with major corporations across the country.

1982: NAACP registered more than 850,000 voters, and through its protests and the support of the Supreme Court, it prevented President Ronald Reagan from giving a tax break to the racially segregated Bob Jones University.

1985: The NAACP led a major anti-apartheid rally in New York City.

1989: the NAACP held a silent march of more than 100,000 people to protest U.S. Supreme Court decisions that have reversed many of the gains made against discrimination.

1990 and on

1991: When avowed Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke ran for the United States Senate in Louisiana, the NAACP started a voter registration campaign that yielded a 76 percent turnout of black voters to defeat Duke.

1995: Myrlie Evers-Williams, the widow of Medgar Evers, was elected to lead the NAACP's board of directors.

1996: Kweisi Mfume left the United States House of Representatives to become the president of the NAACP.

1996: Responding to anti-affirmative action legislation occurring around the country, the NAACP started the Economic Reciprocity Program. Also, in response to increased violence among youth, the NAACP started the "Stop The Violence, Start the Love" campaign.

2000: Accomplishments include television diversity agreements and the largest black voter turnout in 20 years.

2000: On January 17, in Columbia, South Carolina, more than 50,000 people attended a march to protest the flying of the Confederate battle flag. It was the largest civil rights demonstration ever held in the South to date.


Black History: The Niagara Movement

I am one who is critical of most of the black so-called civil rights organizations. Mainly because they are funded by white people and dare, I say if you “follow the money you will get the answer” “he who has the gold makes the rules.” In the case of the NAAP, the fact of the matter is that it was formed by ‘White’ people for the purpose of advancing the economic interests of Jewish people in the United States.

In the beginning, Ida B. Wells was one of the original members, but when she began advocating for ‘Black’ people’s interests, they removed her from the organization. The only other black member was DuBois, who stayed for a short time, but eventually left. In more than one hundred years nothing much has changed. They still put a black face out there that can do nothing but grin!

The association’s charter delineated its mission:

To promote equality of rights and to eradicate caste or race prejudice among the citizens of the United States to advance the interest of colored citizens to secure for them impartial suffrage and to increase their opportunities for securing justice in the courts, education for the children, employment according to their ability and complete equality before law.

In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. They were expressly concerned by the disenfranchisement of Negro’s in the Southern states, particularly because of Mississippi’s passage of a new constitution in 1890. Also, in the early 1900s legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. Black voter registration and turnout dropped markedly in the South as a result.

Because hotels in the U.S. were segregated, the men convened in Canada at the Erie Beach Hotel on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in Fort Erie, Ontario. As a result, the group came to be known as the Niagara Movement. A year later, three whites joined the group: journalist William E. Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz. They met in 1906 at Harper Ferry, West Virginia, and in 1907 in Boston Massachusetts.

The fledgling group struggled for a time with limited resources and internal conflict and disbanded in 1910. Seven of the members of the Niagara Movement joined the Board of Directors of the NAACP, founded in 1909. Although both organizations shared membership and overlapped for a time, the Niagara Movement was a separate organization. Historically it is considered to have had a more radical platform than the NAACP. The Niagara Movement was formed exclusively by African Americans.

This conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white, and most of whom were Jewish American. In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board – Du Bois. It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African American. The Jewish community contributed greatly to the NAACP’s founding and continued financing. Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America “In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board the early Jewish-American co-founders and members.”

According to Pbs.org, over the years, Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another’s emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews’ escape from Egypt. Pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South “pogroms.” Stressing the similarities, rather than the differences, between the Jewish and Black experience in America. Jewish leaders emphasized the idea that both groups would benefit the more America moved toward a society of merit, free of religious, ethnic and racial restrictions.”

Pbs.org further states, “The American Jewish Committee, the American Jewish Congress, and the Anti-Defamation League were central to the campaign against racial prejudice. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations. About 50 percent of the civil rights attorneys in the South during the 1960s were Jews, as were over 50 percent of the Whites who went to Mississippi in 1964 to challenge Jim Crow Laws.

As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois and in 1946 Einstein called racism “America’s worst disease.” Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association’s magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of over 30,000.

Moorfield Storey, who was white, was the president of the NAACP from its founding to 1915. Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants. The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes. It functioned as the NAACP legal department.

Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957. Although, it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. After 1961, serious disputes emerged between the two organizations creating considerable confusion in the eyes and minds of the public.

I am for anyone or group with the intention to benefit the dire state of the African American. However, during my research for this piece I only found a few significant achievements over its more than one hundred year history. It appears that this group is funded by whites, and it is they who guide policy in a way to silently suppress the “Negro” then and now. Think about it, if this organization was fighting for black people like the narrative implies – they would have been wiped out like all of the other groups fighting for the freedom of black people! And that’s my thought provoking perspective…


The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Long Struggle for Civil Rights in the United States

In 2009 the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People celebrated its 100th anniversary. In the article below historian Susan Bragg provides a brief introduction to the history of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the oldest continually active civil rights organization in the United States.

Founded in 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) has provided critical institutional support and leadership in the fight against racial inequalities in America. Although sometimes criticized as too moderate or bureaucratic in nature, the NAACP’s repeated legal campaigns eventually overturned the infamous 1896 Supreme Court ruling sanctioning segregation (Plessy v. Ferguson) and is still a significant political organization to this day.

A violent mob attack on black residents of Springfield, Illinois in 1908 galvanized a handful of progressive white social activists to reach out to African American leaders. Socialist William English Walling, settlement house worker Mary White Ovington, Jewish social worker Henry Moskowitz, and Oswald Garrison Villard, editor of Millet, circulated “The Call” to protest the rise of racial violence and discrimination around the nation. They were joined in this venture by black sociologist W. E. B. Du Bois. Long a critic of the “social uplift” agenda advocated by black educator Booker T. Washington, Du Bois saw the NAACP as both an opportunity to re-invigorate demands for full black civil rights and an important reminder of the national dimensions of Jim Crow. After a series of meetings held in 1909 and 1910, the NAACP emerged as an organization dedicated to protesting racial inequality in American public life.

Over the course of the 20th century, the NAACP explicitly promoted itself as a model of interracial exchange, while also implicitly encouraging activism by both men and women. Initially, formal national leadership positions in the NAACP were largely held by white progressives based in New York City but W. E. B. Du Bois served as editor of the organization’s main source of publicity, Kriz. This important journal circulated news of civil rights activism and promoted black art, writing, and poetry with the vision of challenging mainstream stereotypes of African Americans.

African Americans made up the majority of participants of the many local NAACP chapters that spread slowly throughout the nation and by the era of World War I, a new cadre of black male leaders such as James Weldon Johnson and Walter White emerged as national leaders of the organization. At the same time, the organization regularly relied upon black women’s participation, particularly at the branch level. While prominent anti-lynching activist Ida B. Wells-Barnett reported feeling dismissed by both black male leaders and white female progressives associated with the organization, many women associated with the National Association of Colored Women (NACW) supported the goals of the NAACP through fund raising activities and membership drives. By the 1930s, women like Juanita Jackson Mitchell and Ella Baker emerged as important staff workers in the national organization of the NAACP.

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People challenged racial inequalities largely by publicity and targeted legal challenges, a program initially dictated by the fact that the majority of African Americans lived in the South where direct protest against Jim Crow was dangerous. Such tactics sometimes discouraged grass-roots activism by prioritizing the leadership role of the national staff, yet the NAACP proved successful in winning some important early battles such as overturning the “grandfather clause” (Guinn v. the United States, 1915) and residential segregation ordinances (Buchanan v. Warley, 1917).

The organization also served as an important voice against lynching throughout the 20th century, particularly by lobbying for anti-lynching bills in the 1920s and 1930s. Despite the failure of these legislative efforts, early court victories and increasing national publicity reinforced the NAACP’s commitment to forcing change through political pressure and legal campaigns. Most prominently, a series of NAACP-funded challenges to education inequalities eventually led to Brown v. Topeka Eğitim Kurulu (1954), the Supreme Court ruling overturning de jure segregation.

The NAACP’s emphasis on civil rights agendas supported its larger cultural vision of American pluralism, but over the years the organization has been repeatedly criticized as narrow or even elitist. iken Crisis emerged as a critical source of black creative expression during the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s, Marcus Garvey’s United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) gained more members because of its grass roots emphasis on black unity and community development. In the 1930s, the NAACP created influential relationships with northern Democrats through its anti-lynching efforts even as it struggled to assert a strong vision of economic justice. The organization finally built a mass movement during the years of World War II by pressing the “Double V campaign” to integrate the defense industries, partnering with the CIO and other labor unions, and extending branches into the South.

These developments, in combination with the NAACP’s continuing legal campaigns against segregation, provided critical support for the modern Civil Rights movement. At the same time, the NAACP has struggled to both defend itself against criticism from outside pressures and to translate legal victories into broader social change. Defenders of Jim Crow denounced the NAACP as a “radical” organization and sought to restrict its development in southern states. Yet, by the 1960s, the organization also found itself pressured by youth-led protests that rejected the mediating role of the NAACP in favor of direct activism and grass-roots interests. These tensions reflected the larger difficulty of defining the NAACP’s social justice agenda in the years after Kahverengi v. Tahta.

While the NAACP continues to identify and protest various forms of racial inequality in America, finding resolutions to de facto forms of racial discrimination have proven an ongoing challenge. Ultimately, the NAACP remains a powerful watchdog organization, promoting African American opportunity as a gauge of American democratic health.


Flash 8.0 Plug-in Required

In order to view this interactive content, you will
need to download a newer version of the Flash Player Plug-In.

Jewish Americans have flourished in America, enjoying immense freedom and opportunities. But like other minorities, Jewish Americans have also faced prejudice, especially during periods of economic hardship or war. During World War I and the Great Depression, Jews were often targeted as scapegoats.

The lynching of Leo Frank, a prominent Jewish businessman in Atlanta, alarmed Jewish Americans in 1915. He was falsely accused and convicted of killing a worker, Mary Phagan, in the pencil factory that he managed. After Georgia Governor John M. Slaton stayed Frank's execution because of a lack of evidence, a mob dragged him from the jail and lynched him. Though an isolated tragedy, it caused a ripple effect of fear. Decades later, in 1986, Frank was granted a posthumous pardon while evidence now points to the guilt of Jim Conley, a janitor in the factory who falsely accused Frank of the murder during the trial.

The Leo Frank incident also led to a resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). By the mid-1920s, the KKK claimed to have four million members, more than all the Jews in the United States. In the midst of this turmoil and despite protestations at the time, President Woodrow Wilson nominated Louis D. Brandeis to the Supreme Court in 1916. As the first Jew to serve on the Court, Justice Brandeis had to endure bitter taunts, particularly from fellow justice James C. McReynolds. In the 1920s, Henry Ford, who revolutionized mass production in American industry, relentlessly blamed Jewish Americans for many of the nation's ills in his newspaper, The Dearborn Independent. It was only after World War II that barriers to Jewish Americans began to dissipate in America.

THE JEWISH AMERICANS is a production of JTN Productions WETA Washington, D.C. and David Grubin Productions, Inc.
in association with Thirteen/WNET New York.

Funders for THE JEWISH AMERICANS include The National Endowment for the Humanities Corporation for Public Broadcasting Public Broadcasting Service Nash Family Foundation The Arthur Vining Davis Foundations The Paul & Irma Milstein Foundation The Skirball Foundation The Chais Family Foundation Harry & Belle Krupnick Endowment Fund of the Los Angeles Jewish Community Foundation The Cukier, Goldstein-Goren Foundation Ann B. Friedman The Jesselson Family The Annenberg Foundation Blumenthal Fund Nancy and Morris W. Offit Ruth Ziegler Barbara Zuckerberg.


National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in Alabama (NAACP)

NAACP March in Athens, 2007 Beginning in 1913, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was the leading advocate for black constitutional rights in Alabama during the first half of the twentieth century. Other advocacy organizations existed, such as civic and voters' leagues, but Alabama's NAACP branches provided the most consistent and vocal challenge to African Americans' second-class status in society before the modern civil rights movement. White supremacists viewed the NAACP as a threat to the status quo and used intimidation, violence, and the law to eliminate the various branches in the state. Finally, in 1956, the state outlawed the organization outright, which led to a loss of influence. Alabama NAACP branches also faced internal threats to their survival through ineffective leadership and factionalism. Faced with threats of white reprisal, loss of will on the part of some branch officials and members, and competition from the Communist Party, the Alabama NAACP's crusade for racial equality was still able to generate the opposition to disenfranchisement and Jim Crow laws that would later define the 1950s and 1960s. NAACP Leaders in Washington, D.C. The 1940s represented the height of NAACP organizing in Alabama. By the mid-1940s, Alabama boasted 35 branches with nearly 15,000 members. In part, this growth was prompted by a number of successful court cases filed by the national office to challenge discrimination in housing, public spaces, and education, among others. But the phenomenal expansion was primarily a result of black Alabamians' growing outrage with racial biases, heightened by entry into World War II. Racist policies within the military and wartime industries fueled resentment and fostered a spirit of protest. The result was an explosion in NAACP activism in the state and throughout the South. Rosa Parks and Johnnie Carr, 1985 Membership was largely male in the early years of organizing, but African American middle-class women began to join branches in unprecedented numbers beginning in the late 1930s and held important positions in some branches. For instance, women comprised more than 55 percent of the Montgomery branch's total membership during the early 1940s. They composed 20 percent of the branch's Executive Committee and chaired the Veterans' Affairs Committee. Several woman held the post of secretary of the Montgomery NAACP—an extremely important position given this officer's role as liaison with the New York headquarters. Two of the best-known secretaries of the Montgomery branch were Johnnie Carr and Rosa Parks, who both participated in the Montgomery Bus Boycott and came to symbolize the role of black women in the fight for full rights. Activist and cook Georgia Gilmore organized the "Club from Nowhere," a group of women who cooked and sold food to raise money for the boycott and also accepted anonymous donations, and she also fed boycotters and movement leaders in her Montgomery home. John LeFlore Even the well-run branches faced immense challenges in carrying out the NAACP's goals. The national organization had been founded in 1909 to secure blacks' complete citizenship rights, chiefly through legal efforts, lobbying, and the media. But confronting white supremacy in Alabama, using these and other methods, could result in intimidation on the job, firings, physical harm, and sometimes death. W. E. Morton, secretary of the Mobile branch, was nearly killed by a white mob in 1921 as he conducted NAACP business in nearby Camden. John LeFlore, Mobile branch secretary from 1926 to 1956, endured continual harassment from his white post office supervisors because of his NAACP activities. In the 1930s, police arrested Earnest Taggart as he posted flyers announcing the Birmingham branch's anti-lynching crusade and issued bogus traffic citations to NAACP members during the branch's campaign against police violence. In the 1940s, Birmingham law enforcement officers snatched NAACP buttons from the clothing of local branch members amid the organization's ongoing effort to end police brutality. Autherine Lucy, 1956 Alabama branches used legal means to overturn racial zoning and racially discriminating public teacher' salaries, and they hired lawyers to represent African Americans charged with crimes against whites, such as rape or murder, and used the courts to prosecute whites accused of crimes against African Americans. By the time the Montgomery Bus Boycott began in December 1955, Alabama NAACP activism had created a climate of organized, determined racial protest. The activities executed by the state's branches had achieved enhanced employment opportunities, legal measures calling for more equitable teacher salaries, court decrees outlawing discrimination in voting and racial zoning, and improved interstate railroad accommodations. In Mobile, the branch's protest against the unfair treatment of blacks on municipal buses led the city to implement a "first-come, first served" seating arrangement in 1942. In 1956, NAACP agitation also forced the University of Alabama to admit, if only for a few days, Autherine Lucy. Most importantly, the branches' energetic efforts saved blacks from unjust prison terms as well as from death sentences imposed on the basis of race. Also in 1956, the national office provided legal assistance to Montgomery blacks in the Browder v. Gayle case, which declared Jim Crow bus service unconstitutional.

The NAACP never regained its original prominence in the state. But NAACP branches had, over the years, created the groundswell that would place Alabama at the center of the modern struggle for social justice. Currently, the Alabama NAACP has approximately 35 branches that focus their efforts on disaster relief and continuing instances of racial prejudice, such as job discrimination. The state president is Edward Vaughn, former Michigan State Representative and Alabama native the state NAACP headquarters is in Dothan. Branch offices are located in Eufaula, Barbour County Clanton, Chilton County and Mobile, Mobile County.

Autrey, Dorothy A. "The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in Alabama, 1913–1952." Ph. D diss., University of Notre Dame, 1985.


Orange County

Orange County, county in California, U.S. In 2005 there were some 3 million people living in Orange County, with the Jewish population estimated at 60,000�,000. 2009 estimates put the Jewish population between 80,000 and 100,000.

Orange County Jewish communities include Orange, Anaheim, Santa Ana, Irvine, Yorba Linda, Garden Grove, Laguna Beach, Laguna Hills, Huntington Beach, Tustin, Fountain Valley, Newport Beach, Westminster, Fullerton, Mission Viejo, and Costa Mesa. Most Jews live in Irvine, Newport Beach, Mission Viejo, and Aliso Viejo.

Southern California or California Southland Jewry is an interrelated community in Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, Imperial, and San Diego counties. In climate, water supply, politics, agriculture and industry it differs from the rest of California. Rivalry has long existed between the northern and southern areas of California. While Orange County and neighboring Los Angeles border each other geographically and share some similarities, the two communities are quite distinct.

The primary motivation for settlement in Southern California was not a search for religious freedom but economic opportunity. Many Jews who came to the Southland in the early days had first gone to San Francisco, from which place Jews quickly dispersed throughout the entire American and Canadian West. The Gold Rush brought Jews to Southern California more for trade and agriculture than for mining. The area was known in biblical language as the place of ⋊ttle on a thousand hills."

Orange County Jewry began in 1858, with the arrival of Bavarian immigrant Benjamin Dreyfus to the town of Anaheim. In the early period the best known Jewish citizen of Orange County was Dreyfus, who was a vintner, general agriculturalist, and mayor of Anaheim in 1881 and 1882. Most of Orange County's first Jews were German, including Louis Wartenberg, Morris Goodman, the Reinhaus family, Jacob and Herman Stern, and Joseph Goodman.

Santa Ana was platted in 1870, and in 1872 Jews were located there as merchants. Three Jews held the first High Holy Day services in Anaheim in 1874. In that year Jews were also found in the nearby mission town of San Juan Capistrano, the most notable being Max Mendelson. In 1876 the first Jew reached Tustin. The community of Anaheim was quiet in 1880 when Jewish stores were closed for Yom Kippur, the local press reported.

French Jews were perhaps 10% of all the Jews who arrived during the Gold Rush decades. They came from Alsace, Marseilles, and Paris. Among them were Algerian Jews such as Hippolyte Cahen in Anaheim in 1878.

In the beginning of the 20 th century Sephardi Jews from the island of Rhodes immigrated to Southern California. Other Sephardim arrived during the 1910s and 1920s. Most of the newcomers did not speak English, but the Ladino they spoke was close to the Mexican Spanish of California. Sephardi Jews generally moved first to Seattle, Washington, then later on to California.

Santa Ana and Tustin Jewry - 25 families in all - began establishing a congregation in 1919, to meet the needs of their children for Jewish education.

From the 1930s onward there has been a massive influx of population to Southern California, and Orange County has benefited from the post-World War II development of the region as well as the movement of major corporations and hi-tech industries to Southern California. Jewish life was stimulated by a large influx of British, Canadian, Israeli, Latin American, North African, Russian, South African, and Iranian Jews, who established their own organizations as well as integrating into the older communities. A large number of Hungarian Jews reached the Southland after the Soviets crushed the movement to liberalization in that country in 1956. Iranian Jews have sent their children to all-day schools and have a higher rate of synagogue affiliation than the average. Russian and Israeli non-Orthodox immigrants tend to be High Holiday Jews.

The Merage Jewish Community Center, one of the largest in the United States, with its impressive community campus in Irvine, is an important presence in the community. It is home to Jewish Federation Orange County, the Bureau of Jewish Education, Jewish Family Service, B'nai B'rith Youth Organization, the Community Foundation, Taglit, the Orange County Jewish Historical Society, and Camp Yofi.

Synagogue life is local and Jews are spread throughout the county, but communal life is concentrated in the areas of greatest populations.

There are 38 synagogues in Orange County of every denomination. There are Conservative congregations in several cities: Congregation B'nai Israel in Tustin, Congregation Eilat in Mission Viejo, Surf City Synagogue of Huntington Beach, Temple Beth Emet of Anaheim, Temple Isaiah of Newport Beach. Reform congregations are also found throughout the county: Congregation B'nai Tzedek in Fountain Valley, Congregation Shir Ha Maɺlot in Irvine, Reform Temple of Laguna Woods, Temple Bat Yahm in Newport Beach, Temple Beth David in Westminster, Temple Beth El of South Orange County in Aliso Viejo, Temple Beth Ohr in La Mirada, Temple Beth Sholom in Santa Ana (Orange County's first synagogue), Temple Beth Tikvah in Fullerton. There are Orthodox Congregations: Beth Jacob Congregation of Irvine, Beth Torah Synagogue of Laguna Woods, Young Israel of Orange County in Irvine. There is also a non-denominational congregation: Temple Judea of Laguna Woods.

Chabad has established a presence in Aliso Viejo, Cypress/Los Alamitos, Huntington Beach, Irvine, North Irvine, Laguna Beach, Laguna Niguel, Mission Viejo, Newport Beach, San Clemente, Rancho Santa Margarita, Tustin, and Yorba Linda.

The Sephardi community has two congregations: Ohr Yisrael Sephardic Congregation of Orange County in Irvine, Beth Jacob Sephardic Minyan, also in Irvine.

Rabbi Arnold Rachlis, a former White House Fellow and a leading voice in the Reconstructionist movement, is the rabbi of University Synagogue in Irvine, the sole Reconstructionist congregation and one of the largest synagogues in Orange County.

Humanistic Judaism is represented by the Pacific Community of Secular Humanistic Jews and the Orange County Society for Humanistic Judaism.

There are two day schools in the community: Tarbut V'Torah Community Day School in Irvine and the Hebrew Academy in Huntington Beach.

Among the national organizations that have established offices in Orange County are the American Jewish Committee (AJC) and the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), which have a large presence. Hadassah, Hillel, the Israeli Scouts and B'nai B'rith Youth Organization are also present.

Hillel serves all the campuses in Orange County, including UC Irvine, Chapman University, Cal State Fullerton, and the surrounding colleges. Chapman University has a strong Holocaust education program that not only serves the campus but the community at large and sponsors annual activities in the schools, including a writing contest and teacher training. It recently established a Holocaust Center, which includes a small display of Holocaust artifacts, in its new library, sponsored by the Samueli Family and local philanthropists.

Heritage Pointe and Bubbe & Zayde's Place provides care for the elderly.

Although Jews are an accepted part of Orange County life, the county used to have the reputation of being the center of significant antisemitism. In the late 1970s, The Institute for Historical Review, a Holocaust denial organization, once posted a $50,000 reward for anyone who could prove that the Holocaust happened. Much to their chagrin, Auschwitz survivor and Newport Beach resident Mel Mermelstein took up the challenge and prevailed in court. Mermelstein went against the common advice of the Jewish professional community to quarantine the hate groups and not to engage in discourse. The case drew national attention and was the subject of a television movie. Several mayors have been Jewish two in Irvine and others in Orange County.

Kaynaklar: Ansiklopedi Yahudiliği. © 2008 The Gale Group. Her hakkı saklıdır.

Yahudi Sanal Kütüphanesine hareket halindeyken erişim için mobil uygulamamızı indirin


Videoyu izle: LONDRADA YAHUDI MAHALLESI-YAHUDILER NASIL YASIYOR?